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Table 1 Demographics and selected clinical characteristics of overall patient population and study cohorts

From: Association of depression symptom severity with short-term risk of an initial hospital encounter in adults with major depressive disorder

  Overall Population None/Minimal Mild Moderate Moderately Severe Severe
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
280,145 (100) 75,227 (26.9) 45,857 (16.4) 69,325 (24.7) 54,772 (19.6) 34,964 (12.5)
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 48.0 (17.6) 53.7 (17.2) 48.8 (17.5) 47.1 (17.6) 44.0 (16.9) 42.6 (15.9)
Age distribution
 18–25 years 36,211 (12.9) 5410 (7.2) 5192 (11.3) 9608 (13.9) 9653 (17.6) 6348 (18.2)
 26–34 years 40,319 (14.4) 7357 (9.8) 6354 (13.9) 10,690 (15.4) 9480 (17.3) 6438 (18.4)
 35–44 years 44,813 (16.0) 10,095 (13.4) 7605 (16.6) 11,296 (16.3) 9407 (17.2) 6410 (18.3)
 45–54 years 49,505 (17.7) 12,890 (17.1) 8131 (17.7) 11,988 (17.3) 9795 (17.9) 6701 (19.2)
 55–64 years 53,410 (19.1) 16,422 (21.8) 8986 (19.6) 12,590 (18.2) 9531 (17.4) 5881 (16.8)
 65+ years 55,887 (19.9) 23,053 (30.6) 9589 (20.9) 13,153 (19.0) 6906 (12.6) 3186 (9.1)
Gender
 Female 202,990 (72.5) 54,572 (72.5) 33,256 (72.5) 49,886 (72.0) 39,766 (72.6) 25,510 (73.0)
 Male 77,155 (27.5) 20,655 (27.5) 12,601 (27.5) 19,439 (28.0) 15,006 (27.4) 9454 (27.0)
Race
 Caucasian 238,847 (85.3) 66,866 (88.9) 39,905 (87.0) 58,925 (85.0) 45,316 (82.7) 27,835 (79.6)
 African American 21,961 (7.8) 4789 (6.4) 3000 (6.5) 5270 (7.6) 5036 (9.2) 3866 (11.1)
 Asian 2475 (0.9) 530 (0.7) 390 (0.9) 619 (0.9) 534 (1.0) 402 (1.1)
 Other 16,862 (6.0) 3042 (4.0) 2562 (5.6) 4511 (6.5) 3886 (7.1) 2861 (8.2)
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic 245,525 (87.6) 68,592 (91.2) 40,764 (88.9) 59,055 (85.2) 47,260 (86.3) 29,854 (85.4)
 Hispanic 12,915 (4.6) 2183 (2.9) 1991 (4.3) 3232 (4.7) 3312 (6.0) 2197 (6.3)
 Unknown 21,705 (7.7) 4452 (5.9) 3102 (6.8) 7038 (10.2) 4200 (7.7) 2913 (8.3)
US geographic region
 Midwest 177,679 (63.4) 51,231 (68.1) 29,178 (63.6) 41,902 (60.4) 33,758 (61.6) 21,610 (61.8)
 Northeast 20,950 (7.5) 6289 (8.4) 4162 (9.1) 4776 (6.9) 3582 (6.5) 2141 (6.1)
 South 41,404 (14.8) 9618 (12.8) 6520 (14.2) 10,964 (15.8) 8985 (16.4) 5317 (15.2)
 West 27,161 (9.7) 4953 (6.6) 4123 (9.0) 8583 (12.4) 5603 (10.2) 3899 (11.2)
 Other/unknown 12,951 (4.6) 3136 (4.2) 1874 (4.1) 3100 (4.5) 2844 (5.2) 1997 (5.7)
Insurance type
 Commercial 72,587 (25.9) 16,111 (21.4) 10,039 (21.9) 20,285 (29.3) 16,244 (29.7) 9908 (28.3)
 Medicaid 11,682 (4.2) 1467 (2.0) 1354 (3.0) 3242 (4.7) 3095 (5.7) 2524 (7.2)
 Medicare 28,535 (10.2) 11,406 (15.2) 4162 (9.1) 6732 (9.7) 4050 (7.4) 2185 (6.2)
 Multiple 107,215 (38.3) 32,404 (43.1) 19,914 (43.4) 24,474 (35.3) 18,387 (33.6) 12,036 (34.4)
 Other payer types 4267 (1.5) 1049 (1.4) 669 (1.5) 1027 (1.5) 890 (1.6) 632 (1.8)
 Uninsured 2592 (0.9) 302 (0.4) 278 (0.6) 695 (1.0) 746 (1.4) 571 (1.6)
 Missing 18,271 (6.5) 3384 (4.5) 3094 (6.7) 4661 (6.7) 4520 (8.3) 2612 (7.5)
 Unknown 34,996 (12.5) 9104 (12.1) 6347 (13.8) 8209 (11.8) 6840 (12.5) 4496 (12.9)
Smoking status
 Current smoker 77,927 (27.8) 16,745 (22.3) 11,424 (24.9) 19,764 (28.5) 17,299 (31.6) 12,695 (36.3)
 Non-smoker 77,626 (27.7) 22,181 (29.5) 13,424 (29.3) 18,348 (26.5) 14,847 (27.1) 8826 (25.2)
 History of smoking 124,592 (44.5) 36,301 (48.3) 21,009 (45.8) 31,213 (45.0) 22,626 (41.3) 13,443 (38.4)
Past suicidal ideation 4443 (1.6) 723 (1.0) 548 (1.2) 915 (1.3) 964 (1.8) 1293 (3.7)
Past suicide attempt 1451 (0.5) 265 (0.4) 229 (0.5) 326 (0.5) 327 (0.6) 304 (0.9)
Elixhauser index score
 Mean (SD) 13.4 (14.2) 14.6 (14.9) 13.4 (14.2) 13.2 (14.3) 12.5 (13.6) 12.4 (13.4)
Psychiatric comorbiditiesa
 Anxiety disorders 143,705 (51.3) 33,819 (45.0) 23,609 (51.5) 35,923 (51.8) 29,908 (54.6) 20,446 (58.5)
 Sleep-wake disorders 43,787 (15.6) 12,651 (16.8) 7414 (16.2) 10,979 (15.8) 7893 (14.4) 4850 (13.9)
 Caffeine and nicotine addictions 38,999 (13.9) 8086 (10.7) 5716 (12.5) 10,188 (14.7) 8790 (16.0) 6219 (17.8)
 Trauma-and-stressor-related disorders 26,747 (9.5) 5547 (7.4) 4410 (9.6) 6534 (9.4) 5859 (10.7) 4397 (12.6)
 All other substances addiction (non-caffeine and tobacco) 17,926 (6.4) 3796 (5.0) 2968 (6.5) 4336 (6.3) 3887 (7.1) 2939 (8.4)
Depression treatment
 Antidepressant 215,130 (76.8) 55,463 (73.7) 34,269 (74.7) 53,443 (77.1) 43,804 (80.0) 28,151 (80.5)
 Psychotherapy 49,527 (17.7) 10,867 (14.4) 9526 (20.2) 11,769 (17.0) 10,166 (18.6) 7469 (21.4)
  1. Across all listed comparisons of the study cohorts stratified by depression symptom severity level, p-values were < 0.001
  2. aReported for psychiatric comorbidities present in the overall study population at > 5%
  3. MDD Major depressive disorder, SD Standard deviation