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Table 2 Study Characteristics—Clinical Trials of Stand-Alone PST

From: Problem-solving training as an active ingredient of treatment for youth depression: a scoping review and exploratory meta-analysis

Study Country N a Participant age range (mean) in years % female Diagnostic status % with elevated depressive symptoms Recruitment Setting Conditions N sessions Outcome considered for meta-analysis Risk of Bias
Eskin et al. [43] Turkey 53 N/A (19.1) 70 Diag. (Dep) 100 Community 1. PST
2. Waitlist
6 BDI (Prim) High
Hoek et al. [44] Netherlands 45 12–21 (16.1) 76 Elev.
(Anx or Dep)
80 Community 1. PST
2. Waitlist
5 CES-D (Prim) Some concerns
Parker et al. [45] Australia 176 15–25 (17.6) 61 Elev. (various) 54 Clinical 1. PST c
2. SUP c
6 BDI-II (Prim) Some concerns
Michelson et al. [46] India 251 12–20 (15.6) 30 Elev. (various) 53b Community 1. PST
2. PST via booklets only
emotional symptoms (Sec)
  1. Note. BDI: Beck Depression Inventory [67]; CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [68]; Diag.: Diagnosis; Elev.: elevated symptoms; Prim: defined as a primary outcome in the primary study; SDQ = Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [69]; Sec: defined as a secondary outcome in the primary study; SUP: supportive counselling
  2. aThe total sample size reported is the number of participants randomized to intervention and control conditions
  3. bThis study assessed broader emotional symptoms, rather than depressive symptoms, via the SDQ’s emotional symptoms subscale
  4. cDelivered with adjunctive behavioural activation or psychoeducation in a factorial 2 × 2 design