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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of parents with different hope scores (N = 317)

From: Hope level and associated factors among parents of retinoblastoma patients during COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics N (%) hope score(x ±s) F-value /t-value P-value
Relationship to patient
 Mother 205(64.67) 35.17 ± 4.44 −1.056# 0.292a
 Father 112(35.33) 35.71 ± 4.39   
Age, years
  ≤ 29 107(33.75) 34.64 ± 4.33 2.129* 0.121
 29–35 134(42.27) 35.74 ± 4.66   
  > 35 76(23.98) 35.70 ± 4.03   
Residence
 City 115(36.28) 36.08 ± 4.17 2.486* 0.085
 Town 79(24.92) 34.80 ± 4.98   
 Countryside 123(38.80) 35.05 ± 4.20   
Marital status
 Married 308(97.16) 35.41 ± 4.44 1.309* 0.272
 Divorced 6(1.89) 34.83 ± 3.71   
 Separated 3(0.95) 31.33 ± 2.52   
Education
 Less than Primary 13(4.10) 35.38 ± 4.82 1.656* 0.160
 Junior high school 101(31.86) 34.48 ± 4.17   
 High school or technical secondary school 80(25.24) 35.85 ± 4.25   
 College or undergraduate 114(35.96) 35.68 ± 4.66   
 Postgraduate 9(2.84) 36.78 ± 4.24   
Occupation
 Job 187(58.99) 35.64 ± 4.48 −1.365# .173 a
 Jobless 130(41.01) 34.95 ± 4.32   
Sleep status
 Good 61(19.24) 36.82 ± 5.06 4.426* 0.005
 General 200(63.09) 35.30 ± 3.89   
 Poor 22(6.94) 34.68 ± 5.70   
 Very poor 34(10.73) 33.56 ± 4.61   
Health status
 Very good 64(20.19) 36.81 ± 4.46 3.637* 0.013
 Good 139(43.85) 35.35 ± 4.42   
 General 107(33.75) 34.55 ± 4.14   
 Poor 7(2.21) 34.71 ± 5.82   
Can family income meet children’s medical expenses
 Can 149(47.00) 35.79 ± 4.35 1.645# 0.101
 Can’t 168(53.00) 34.98 ± 4.46   
Understanding of RB
 Not at all 20(6.31) 35.05 ± 5.45 0.405* 0.667
 Know a little 262(82.65) 35.30 ± 4.26   
 Know 35(11.04) 35.97 ± 5.00   
Depression
 PHQ ≥ 3 95(29.97) 32.59 ± 4.05 7.993# < 0.001a
 PHQ < 3 222(70.03) 36.55 ± 4.03   
Anxiety
 GAD≥10 131(41.32) 33.79 ± 4.55 5.566# < 0.001a
 GAD < 10 186(58.68) 36.47 ± 3.98   
  1. Note. PHQ The patient health questionnaire; GAD generalized anxiety disorder; N Number; * = F value; # = t value; a P-values calculated from Independent sample t-test; all other P-values were obtained by using the One-way ANOVA test; Bold face p < 0.05.