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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of RB patients with different hope scores (N = 317)

From: Hope level and associated factors among parents of retinoblastoma patients during COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics N (%) hope score \( \left(\overline{\boldsymbol{x}}\pm \boldsymbol{s}\right) \) F-value /t-value P-value
Age, years
  ≤ 2 60(18.93) 35.82 ± 4.15 0.337* 0.799
  > 2,≤3 90(28.39) 35.09 ± 3.57   
  > 3,≤5 117(35.91) 35.30 ± 4.85   
  > 5 50(15.78) 35.44 ± 5.10   
Sex
 Male 167(52.68) 35.06 ± 4.94 −1.294# 0.197C
 Female 150(47.32) 35.69 ± 3.74   
Time since diagnosis, months
  ≤ 6 44(13.88) 36.02 ± 4.72 0.930* 0.447
  > 6,≤12 65(20.50) 35.09 ± 4.06   
  > 12,≤24 102(32.18) 35.65 ± 4.29   
  > 24,≤36 75(23.66) 35.28 ± 4.40   
  > 36 31(9.78) 34.23 ± 5.14   
Ocular disease
 Monoculus 225(70.98) 35.52 ± 4.27 −2.303# 0.022C
 Binoculus 92(29.02) 34.97 ± 4.76   
Tumor stage at diagnosisa
 A/B/C 15(4.73) 35.80 ± 3.12 0.580* 0.629
 D 132(41.64) 35.43 ± 4.38   
 E 156(49.21) 35.14 ± 4.55   
 Extraocular 14(4.42) 36.64 ± 4.60   
Treatment types b
  ≤ 4 131(41.32) 34.90 ± 4.61 2.972* 0.053
 4–6 158(49.84) 35.94 ± 4.36   
  > 6 28(8.84) 34.25 ± 3.42   
Times of hospitalizations
  ≤ 6 110(34.70) 35.36 ± 4.26 1.650* 0.194
 6–10 94(29.65) 35.97 ± 4.31   
  > 10 113(35.65) 34.85 ± 4.64   
Disease state
 Under treatment 108(34.07) 34.72 ± 4.09 1.711* 0.182
 Under reexamine 206(64.98) 35.69 ± 4.59   
 Had cured 3(0.95) 35.60 ± 7.58   
  1. Note. N Number; * = F value; # = t value; Bold face p < 0.05.
  2. aintraocular retinoblastoma was classified by the International Classification of Retinoblastoma as group A; group B; group C; group D; and group E.
  3. bthe sum of the treatment types methods (such as intravenous chemotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, examination under anesthesia, enucleation, intracameral chemotherapy, intravitreal chemotherapy, cataract surgery, onsolidation therapies, pars plana vitrectomy, anti-neovasculariztion therapy, and cradiation-based therapies) that have been used so far.
  4. CP-values calculated from Independent sample t-test; all other P-values were obtained by using the One-way ANOVA test.