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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the participants in TD and ASD groups

From: Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: a multicenter survey

Variable TD(N = 1158), Median (IQR)/N(%) ASD(N = 1310), Median (IQR)/N(%) Z/χ2 P
Age, years 4.44 (3.42–5.39) 3.95 (3.13–4.88) − 6.667 <0.001
Gender, N (%)
 Female 393 (33.9) 233 (17.8) 84.701 <0.001
 Male 765 (66.1) 1077 (82.2)   
Region
 North 422 (36.4) 376 (28.7) 34.978 <0.001
 South 234 (20.2) 291 (22.2)   
 West 190 (16.4) 319 (24.4)   
 East 158 (13.6) 144 (11)   
 Middle 154 (13.3) 180 (13.7)   
Residence
 Urban 1020 (88.1) 893 (68.2) 143.721 <0.001
 Rural 108 (9.3) 248 (21.7)   
 Miss 30 (2.6) 133 (10.2)   
Paternal education level
 Primary education 7 (0.6) 22 (1.7) 45.714 <0.001
 Secondary education 323 (27.9) 516 (39.4)   
 Secondary education above 812 (70.1) 752 (57.4)   
 Miss 16 (1.4) 20 (1.5)   
Maternal education level
 Primary education 14 (1.2) 33 (2.5) 106.887 <0.001
 Secondary education 294 (25.4) 579 (44.2)   
 Secondary education above 840 (72.5) 688 (52.5)   
 Miss 10 (0.9) 10 (0.8)   
Annual family income, RMBa
  < 40,000 380 (32.8) 726 (55.4) 152.34 <0.001
 40,000–200,000 490 (42.3) 439 (33.5)   
  > 200,000 207 (17.9) 92 (7)   
 Miss 81 (7) 53 (4)   
  1. a1 RMB ≈ 0.155 US Dollars