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Table 1 Characteristics of 288 people who use drugs, stratified by PROMIS Emotional Distress – Depression score

From: The effect of depressive symptoms on pain in a substance-using population with persistent pain: a cross-sectional cohort study

Characteristic Moderate – Severe Depressive Symptomsa
n (%)
n = 76 (26.4%)
No – Mild Depressive Symptomsa
n (%)
n = 212 (73.6%)
Odds Ratio (95% CI) p - value
Average pain severitya
 Median (IQR) 6 (5–7) 6 (4–7) 1.07 (0.95–1.21) 0.218
Average pain interferenceb
 Median (IQR) 6 (4–7) 4 (1–6) 1.19 (1.08–1.31) < 0.001
PTSDc
 Yes 53 (69.7) 75 (35.4) 4.21 (2.39–7.40) < 0.001
 No 23 (30.3) 137 (64.6)   
Anxietya
 Moderate – Severe 56 (73.7) 34 (16.0) 14.66 (7.82–27.49) < 0.001
 None – Mild 20 (26.3) 178 (84.0)   
Age
 ≥ Median 29 (38.2) 114 (53.8) 0.53 (0.31–0.91) 0.028
 < Median 47 (61.8) 98 (46.2)   
Sex
 Male 46 (60.5) 144 (67.9) 0.72 (0.42–1.25) 0.305
 Female 30 (39.5) 68 (32.1)   
Race
 White 35 (46.0) 96 (45.3) 1.03 (0.61–1.75) 1.000
 BIPOC or other 41 (54.0) 116 (54.7)   
Highest education completed
 ≥ High school 32 (42.1) 112 (52.8) 0.65 (0.38–1.10) 0.141
 < High school 44 (57.9) 100 (47.2)   
Homelessd
 Yes 15 (19.7) 23 (10.8) 2.02 (0.99–4.12) 0.077
 No 61 (80.3) 189 (89.2)   
Incarceratedd
 Yes 6 (7.9) 6 (2.8) 2.94 (0.92–9.42) 0.118
 No 70 (92.1) 206 (97.2)   
≥ Daily heroin used
 Yes 23 (30.3) 40 (18.9) 1.87 (1.03–3.39) 0.057
 No 53 (69.7) 172 (81.1)   
≥ Daily stimulant used
 Yes 42 (55.3) 75 (35.4) 2.26 (1.33–3.84) 0.004
 No 34 (44.7) 137 (64.6)   
≥ Daily non-medical prescription opioid used
 Yes 3 (4.0) 4 (1.9) 2.14 (0.47–9.78) 0.385
 No 73 (96.0) 208 (98.1)   
≥ Daily cannabis used
 Yes 21 (27.6) 51 (24.1) 1.21 (0.67–2.18) 0.643
 No 55 (72.4) 161 (75.9)   
Heavy alcohol used
 Yes 15 (19.7) 22 (10.4) 2.12 (1.04–4.35) 0.058
 No 61 (80.3) 190 (89.6)   
Overdosed
 Yes 17 (22.4) 24 (11.3) 2.26 (1.14–4.49) 0.030
 No 59 (77.6) 188 (88.7)   
Binge drug used
 Yes 37 (48.7) 55 (25.9) 2.71 (1.57–4.67) < 0.001
 No 39 (51.3) 157 (74.1)   
Injection drug used
 Yes 56 (73.7) 121 (57.1) 2.11 (1.18–3.76) 0.016
 No 20 (26.3) 91 (42.9)   
Inability to access addiction treatmentd
 Yes 4 (5.3) 3 (1.4) 3.87 (0.85–17.71) 0.082
 No 72 (94.7) 209 (98.6)   
Barriers to accessing healthcared
 Yes 19 (25.0) 32 (15.1) 1.88 (0.99–3.56) 0.077
 No 57 (75.0) 180 (84.9)   
Currently on pain medication
 Yes 27 (35.5) 117 (55.2) 0.45 (0.26–0.77) 0.005
 No 49 (64.5) 95 (44.8)   
  1. a Denotes activities/events within the week prior to the participant’s interview
  2. b Denotes activities/events within the 24 h prior to the participant’s interview
  3. c Denotes activities/events within the month prior to the participant’s interview
  4. d Denotes activities/events within the 6 months prior to the participant’s interview