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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample (n = 307), and comparison of those who had sought help for mental health problems at follow-up and those who had not

From: Predictors of help-seeking behaviour in people with mental health problems: a 3-year prospective community study

  No help-seeking
(n = 238; 77.5%)
Help-seeking (n = 69; 22.5%) Total sample
(n = 307)
Statistics
U/χ2(df); Pearson’s r/ Cramer’s V
Male sex, n (%) 91 (38.2) 17 (24.6) 108 (35.2) χ2(1) = 4.337, p = 0.037, V = 0.119
Age, median (mean ± SD) 33 (31.25 ± 7.21) 31 (30.53 ± 7.72) 33 (31.09 ± 7.32) U = 7936.500, p = 0.672, r = − 0.041
Nationality, n (%) Swiss 230 (96.6) 66 (95.7) 296 (96.4) χ2(1) = 0.151, p = 0.698, V = 0.022
ISCED 2011a, n (%)     χ2(3) = 0.628 p = 0.731, V = 0.045
 Primary education (ISCED 1) 2 (0.8) 1 (1.4) 3 (1.0)
 Secondary school (ISCED 2) 132 (55.5) 35 (50.7) 167 (54.4)  
 High school (ISCED 3) 104 (43.7) 33 (47.8) 137 (44.6)  
Employment, n (%)     χ2(3) = 11.658, p = 0.020, V = 0.195
 Unemployed 5 (2.1) 3 (4.3) 8 (2.6)
 Protected employment 0 (0.0) 2 (2.9) 2 (0.7)  
 Temporary work, self-employed 3 (1.3) 1 (1.4) 4 (1.3)  
 Normal employment, in school 230 (96.6) 62 (89.9) 292 (95.1)  
Marital status, n (%)     χ2(5) = 11.477, p = 0.043, V = 0.193
 Unmarried 115 (48.3) 37 (53.6) 152 (49.5)
 Married or registered partnership 117 (49.2) 25 (36.2) 142 (46.3)  
 Separated/divorced/widowed 2 (0.8) 3 (4.3) 5 (1.6)  
Current non-psychotic axis-I disorder at baselineb, n (%) 55 (23.1) 30 (43.5) 85 (27.7) χ2(1) = 11.085, p < 0.001, V = 0.190
Current non-psychotic axis-I disorder at follow-upb, n (%) 42 (17.6) 28 (40.6) 70 (22.8) χ2(1) = 15.982, p < 0.001, V = 0.228
Current functional deficit at baselinec 7 (2.9) 20 (29.0) 27 (8.8) χ2(1) = 45.234, p < 0.001, V = 0.384
Current functional deficit at follow-upc 10 (4.2) 23 (33.3) 33 (10.7) χ2(1) = 47.318, p < 0.001, V = 0.393
Help-seeking at baseline, n (%) 63 (26.5) 45 (65.2) 108 (35.2) χ2(1) = 35.218, p < 0.001, V = 0.339
Intention to seek helpd, n (%) 199 (83.6) 61 (88.4) 260 (84.7) χ2(1) = 0.948, p = 0.330, V = 0.056
  1. a according to International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2012)39
  2. b according to Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview
  3. c defined as SOFAS score < 71
  4. d intention to seek help is dichotomized (0 = no or improbable intention to seek help, 1 = probable or definite intention to seek help)