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Table 2 Associations between Length of exposure to an Urban environment and Psychosis Phenotypes (N = 47,004)

From: Impact of urban birth and upbringing on expression of psychosis in a Chinese undergraduate population

  Psychoticism
n = 1961 (4.2%)
Paranoia
n = 2572 (5.5%)
Schizotypal symptoms
n = 867 (1.8%)a
Nuclear syndrome
n = 116 (0.2%)
Diagnosed Schizophrenia
n = 63 (0.1%)
N (%) OR N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI)
Urban Exposure
 Total in 15 yearsb
n = 47,004 (100%)
3.6 (6.0) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 3.9 (6.2) 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 4.4 (6.5) 1.02 (1.01–1.03)*** 4.0 (6.4) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 5.5 (6.8) 1.05 (1.02–1.09)**
 0 years (Ref)
n = 33,550 (71.4%)
1383 (70.5) Ref (1) 1763 (68.5) Ref (1) 557 (64.2) Ref (1) 81 (69.8) 0.50 (0.15–1.63) 36 (57.2) Ref (1)
 1–5 years
n = 1958 (4.2%)
82 (4.2) 0.82 (0.63–1.06) 105 (4.1) 0.86 (0.69–1.08) 44 (5.1) 1.11 (0.79–1.56) 3 (2.6) 0.61 (0.19–1.98) 1 (1.6) 0.43 (0.06–3.18)
 6–10 years
n = 1598 (3.4%)
81 (4.1) 1.05 (0.80–1.37) 116 (4.5) 1.26 (1.01–1.57)* 35 (4.1) 1.06 (0.73–1.55) 3 (2.6) 1.30 (0.84–1.24) 4 (6.3) 2.46 (0.85–7.12)
 11–15 years
n = 9898 (21.0%)
415 (21.2) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 588 (22.9) 1.15 (1.03–1.28)* 231 (26.6) 1.44 (1.22–1.71)*** 29 (25.0) 1.02 (0.84–1.24) 22 (34.9) 2.35 (1.36–4.07)**
  1. Adjusted for age, sex and PHQ-9 score
  2. For 1st five years also adjust for total years in 2nd and 3rd; for 2nd adjust for total in 1st and 3rd; for 3rd adjust for total in 1st and 2nd
  3. aNuclear syndrome excluded from analysis
  4. bmean (SD) were used to describe this variable
  5. *P < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001