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Table 4 Associations between Etiological risk factors and Psychosis Phenotypes (N = 47,004)

From: Impact of urban birth and upbringing on expression of psychosis in a Chinese undergraduate population

  Psychoticism
n = 1961 (4.2%)
Paranoia
n = 2572 (5.5%)
Schizotypal symptoms
n = 867 (1.8%)a
Nuclear syndrome
n = 116 (0.2%)
Diagnosed Schizophrenia
n = 63 (0.1%)
N (%) OR N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI) N (%) OR (95%CI)
Male sex
n = 23,444 (49.9%)
993 (50.6) 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 1253 (48.7) 0.95 (0.88–1.03) 393 (45.3) 0.83 (0.73–0.95)** 59 (50.9) 1.04 (0.72–1.50) 38 (60.3) 1.54 (0.93–2.56)
1.20 (1.08–1.33)*** 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 1.06 (0.73–1.55) 1.61 (0.97–2.67)
Ethnic Minority
n = 4777 (10.2%)
228 (11.6) 1.18 (1.02–1.36)* 278 (10.8) 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 87 (10.0) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 11 (9.5) 0.91 (0.49–1.70) 9 (14.3) 1.40 (0.69–2.83)
1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.94 (0.81–1.09) 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 0.81 (0.42–1.53) 1.30 (0.64–2.64)
Low Family Income
n = 6986 (14.9%)
361 (18.4) 1.32 (1.17–1.48)*** 386 (15.0) 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 135 (15.6) 1.08 (0.90–1.31) 26 (22.4) 1.63 (1.05–2.54)* 23 (36.5) 3.04 (1.81–5.11)***
1.11 (0.96–1.27) 0.83 (0.73–0.94)** 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 1.32 (0.83–2.10) 2.73 (1.62–4.60)***
Family history psychosis
n = 338 (0.7%)
32 (1.6) 2.43 (1.68–3.50)*** 30 (1.2) 1.68 (1.15–2.45)** 15 (1.7) 2.47 (1.47–4.17)*** 1 (0.9) 1.21 (0.17–8.69) 0
1.60 (1.04–2.48)* 1.04 (0.68–1.61) 1.61 (0.89–2.89) 0.74 (0.10–5.55)
Family history non-psychotic disorder
n = 440 (0.9%)
35 (1.9) 2.01 (1.42–2.84)*** 52 (2.0) 2.32 (1.73–3.11)*** 21 (2.4) 2.66 (1.70–4.14)*** 0 0
1.25 (0.83–1.89) 1.63 (1.64–2.28)** 1.80 (1.09–2.96)*
Loss of parent
n = 632 (1.3%)
46 (2.3) 1.83 (1.35–2.47)*** 62 (2.4) 1.91 (1.47–2.49)*** 19 (2.2) 1.67 (1.05–2.66)* 1 (0.9) 0.63 (0.09–4.55) 0
1.31 (0.92–1.88) 1.48 (1.09–2.00)* 1.17 (0.70–1.97) 0.43 (0.06–3.18)
Physical abuse
n = 14,785 (31.5%)
1044
(53.2)
2.61 (2.38–2.86)*** 1281 (49.8) 2.31 (2.13–2.50)*** 464 (53.5) 2.64 (2.30–3.02)*** 69 (59.5) 3.23 (2.22–4.68)*** 33 (52.4) 2.29 (1.39–3.76)**
1.75 (1.58–1.95)*** 1.62 (1.48–1.77)*** 1.69 (1.46–1.96)*** 1.88 (1.27–2.77)*** 1.71 (1.03–2.85)*
Sexual abuse
n = 1360 (2.9%)
121 (6.2) 2.43 (1.93–2.84)*** 146 (.7) 2.13 (1.79–2.55)*** 60 (6.9) 2.52 (1.92–3.29)*** 17 (14.7) 5.89 (3.50–9.90)*** 3 (4.8) 1.77 (0.55–5.66)
1.83 (1.09–1.76)** 1.36 (1.10–1.69)** 1.35 (0.98–1.86) 2.63 (1.46–4.75)** 1.01 (0.31–3.35)
Neglect
n = 16,056 (34.2%)
1183 (60.3) 3.09 (2.81–3.39)*** 1487 (57.8) 2.82 (2.60–3.06)*** 552 (63.7) 3.50 (3.04–4.02)*** 70 (60.3) 2.94 (2.02–4.26)*** 37 (58.7) 2.70 (1.64–4.46)***
1.86 (1.68–2.07)*** 1.82 (1.66–1.99)*** 2.10 (1.80–2.44)*** 1.62 (1.10–2.39)* 1.95 (1.17–3.26)*
  1. Adjusted for age and sex. Second row for each variable further adjusted for PHQ9 score
  2. aNuclear syndrome excluded from analysis
  3. *P < 0.05, **p < 0.01,***p < 0.001