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Table 1 Comparison of characteristics of urban and rural individuals with schizophrenia from China (2001–2005)

From: Determinants of never-treated status in rural versus urban contexts for individuals with schizophrenia in a population-based study in China

Characteristic Urban (N = 86) Rural (N = 240) t (df) p+
n mean (sd) n mean (sd)
Age 86 44.7 (14.4) 240 43.0 (13.0) t(324) = 1.01 0.331
Years of schooling 86 8.8 (3.6) 240 5.4 (3.9) t(324) = 7.27 < 0.001
Age of onset 81 30.8 (11.3) 217 29.9 (10.6) t(296) = 0.63 0.527
Duration of illness (years) 81 14.1 (11.7) 217 12.5 (10.5) t(296) = 1.18 0.240
Global Assessment of Function (GAF) score 86 45.3 (16.1) 239 43.2 (14.3) t(323) = 1.13 0.261
Characteristic Urban Rural Z p+
n median (IQR) n median (IQR)
Number co-resident family members1 81 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 222 3.0 (2.0–3.0) Z = 1.65 0.099
Annual per capita family income ($US)*1 86 486 (316–759) 238 194 (121–316) Z = 8.39 < 0.001
Characteristic Urban Rural X2 (df) p+
n/N % n/N %
Sex      X2 (1)=0.59 0.442
  Male 45/86 52.3% 114/240 47.5%   
  Female 41/86 47.7% 126/240 52.5%   
Marital Status      X2 (1)=5.52 0.019
  Currently unmarried 44/86 51.2% 88/240 36.7%   
  Currently married 42/86 48.8% 152/240 63.3%   
Occupation      X2 (1)=147.57 < 0.001
  Employed 19/80 23.8% 210/227 92.5%   
  Unemployed 61/80 76.2% 17/227 7.5%   
Religion      X2 (1)=3.14 0.076
  non-religious 77/86 89.5% 195/240 81.2%   
  religious** 9/86 10.5% 45/240 18.8%   
Has health insurance      X2 (1)=13.15 < 0.001
  Yes 44/86 51.2% 67/229 29.3%   
  no (self-pay) 42/86 48.8% 162/229 70.7%   
Prior psychiatric treatment      X2 (2) = 14.05 < 0.001
  prior hospitalization 61/86 70.9% 115/240 47.9%   
  only outpatient treatment 10/86 11.6% 62/240 25.8%   
  never treated2 15/86 17.5% 63/240 26.3%   
  1. +statistically significant p-values are bolded
  2. 1 indicates comparison of medians using Mann Whitney Test
  3. 2 includes indiviudals who only sought help from friends, colleagues or relatives
  4. *based on 1 July 2003 exchange rate of 8.236 RMB = 1$US
  5. **includes Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist and Taoist