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Table 3 Analyses of risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with and without schizophrenia

From: Hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture risks and schizophrenia: a nationwide longitudinal study

Predictive variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Schizophrenia 1.53 (1.12–2.10) .01 1.40 (1.01–1.95) .05*
Age (< 60 = 0, ≥60 = 1) 6.09 (4.53–8.18) <.01 2.89 (1.98–4.21) <.01*
Sex (Female = 1, Male = 0) 2.18 (1.61–2.95) <.01 1.80 (1.33–2.44) <.01*
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 4.55 (3.38–6.13) <.01 1.89 (1.28–2.79) <.01*
 Diabetes mellitus 3.78 (2.66–5.37) <.01 1.47 (0.96–2.24) .07
 Dyslipidemia 2.68 (1.87–3.85) <.01 0.89 (0.58–1.36) .59
 Coronary artery disease 12.18 (6.00–24.73) <.01 3.62 (1.71–7.67) <.01*
 Congestive heart failure 5.79 (3.15–10.64) <.01 1.06 (0.54–2.09) .86
 Cerebrovascular disease 2.49 (1.35–4.57) .01 0.65 (0.34–1.24) .19
 Chronic pulmonary disease 3.03 (2.11–4.35) <.01 1.33 (0.89–1.99) .17
 Osteoarthritis 3.80 (2.76–5.25) <.01 1.71 (1.18–2.48) <.01*
 Malignancy 2.09 (0.52–8.41) .30   
Degree of urbanization
 Urban Reference    
 Suburban 1.14 (0.84–1.55) .41   
 Rural 1.47 (0.92–2.34) .11   
Income group
 Low income Reference   Reference  
 Medium income 0.70 (0.52–0.95) .02 0.88 (0.64–1.20) .41
 High income 0.30 (0.17–0.55) <.01 0.56 (0.30–1.03) .06
  1. HR indicates hazard ratio; CI indicates confidence interval