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Table 2 Socio-demographic factors associated with current substance usea

From: Prevalence and perception of substance abuse and associated economic indicators and mental health disorders in a large cohort of Kenyan students: towards integrated public health approach and clinical management

Variable Category Tobacco Current Alcohol Current Cannabis Current Sedatives Current Khat/Amphetamines Current
O.R (95% C.I) O.R (95% C.I) O.R (95% C.I) O.R (95% C.I) O.R (95% C.I)
Sex Male 3.72 1.77 2.74 1.02 2.71
(2.99–4.67)*** (1.59–1.98)*** (2.21–3.41)*** (0.75–1.39) (2.07–3.58)***
Female Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Age Mean(SD) 1.08 1.08 1.05 1.08 1.11
(1.04–1.11)*** (1.06–1.11)*** (1.01–1.09)* (1.01–1.14)* (1.06–1.16)***
Marital status Married Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Single 1.37 1.13 1.36 1.50 0.76
(0.91–2.15) (0.90–1.42) (0.89–2.19) (0.76–3.56) (0.50–1.22)
Others 6.45 3.05 3.13 2.21 2.98
(2.53–15.1)*** (1.49–6.04)** (0.88–8.78)* (0.12–12.9) (0.84–8.33)
Religion Protestant Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Catholic 1.23 1.27 1.12 1.04 1.33
(1.02–1.49)* (1.14–1.42)*** (0.91–1.37) (0.75–1.45) (1.04–1.71)*
Muslim 1.25 0.61 1.31 1.48 1.66
(0.79–1.88) (0.43–0.83)** (0.82–1.99) (0.72–2.72) (0.96–2.70)
Others 0.84 0.84 1.45 0.81 0.95
(0.47–1.38) (0.62–1.13) (0.91–2.21) (0.28–1.80) (0.45–1.78)
Birth order 1–2 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
3–5 0.82 0.87 0.77 1.06 1.04
(0.67–0.99)* (0.78–0.98)* (0.62–0.95)* (0.76–1.46) (0.80–1.34)
6 +  0.64 0.65 0.55 0.82 1.35
(0.44–0.90)* (0.53–0.80)*** (0.36–0.80)** (0.44–1.42) (0.91–1.94)
Level of Education High School 1.07 0.59 0.92 0.83 1.23
(0.83–1.37) (0.50–0.70)*** (0.70–1.20) (0.50–1.30) (0.88–1.68)
College 0.95 1.08 1.00 1.55 1.29
(0.73–1.22) (0.94–1.25) (0.77–1.29) (1.06–2.22)* (0.94–1.75)
University Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Wealth Index Quintile 1 1.16 0.89 1.61 1.58 1.15
(0.87–1.55) (0.75–1.06) (1.16–2.24)** (0.97–2.62) (0.79–1.67)
Quintile 2 1.61 1.68 2.87 1.56 1.27
(1.23–2.11)*** (1.44–1.97)*** (2.14–3.91)*** (0.96–2.60) (0.88–1.84)
Quintile 3 1.02 0.89 1.48 1.54 0.88
(0.76–1.37) (0.75–1.06) (1.06–2.07)* (0.94–2.57) (0.59–1.32)
Quintile 4 0.69 0.61 0.64 0.76 1.01
(0.50–0.95)* (0.50–0.73)*** (0.43–0.96)* (0.42–1.36) (0.69–1.48)
Quintile 5 Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. Ref. Reference category, O.R Odds Ratio, C.I Confidence Interval
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  3. aResults from a univariatelogisticregressionmodel