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Table 1 Characteristics of participants in the study

From: The relationship between online courses and mental health among Chinese children

  children with normal mental health status (N = 429) children with borderline mental health status (N = 55) children with abnormal mental health status (N = 31) P-value*
Family’s characteristics
Residential region     0.096
 Eastern region 153 (35.7%) 15 (27.3%) 6 (19.4%)  
 Central region 140 (32.6%) 21 (38.2%) 17 (54.8%)  
 Western region 136 (31.7%) 19 (34.5%) 8 (25.8%)  
Parental age, years (sd) 40.5 (4.7) 41.5 (4.5) 41.1 (4.8) 0.209
Parental gender     0.892
 Male 112 (26.1%) 16 (29.1%) 8 (25.8%)  
 Female 317 (73.9%) 39 (70.9%) 23 (74.2%)  
Parental education level     0.609
 Primary or secondary school 88 (20.5%) 15 (27.3%) 8 (25.8%)  
 High or vocational high school 82 (19.1%) 8 (14.5%) 5 (16.1%)  
 Junior college or university 210 (49.0%) 27 (49.1%) 12 (38.7%)  
 Master or above 49 (11.4%) 5 (9.1%) 6 (19.4%)  
Per capita monthly income, yuan     0.762
 Less than 1000 18 (4.2%) 2 (3.6%) 1 (3.2%)  
 1000—3000 105 (24.5%) 17 (30.9%) 9 (29.0%)  
 3000—5000 139 (32.4%) 13 (23.6%) 7 (22.6%)  
 More than 5000 167 (38.9%) 23 (41.8%) 14 (45.2%)  
Family type     0.59
 With only one child 232 (54.1%) 28 (50.9%) 14 (45.2%)  
 With more than one child 197 (45.9%) 27 (49.1%) 17 (54.8%)  
Children’s characteristics
Children’s gender     0.231
 Boy 223 (52.0%) 35 (63.6%) 18 (58.1%)  
 Girl 206 (48.0%) 20 (36.4%) 13 (41.9%)  
Children’s age, years (sd) 12.5 (1.4) 12.6 (1.3) 12.0 (1.5) 0.189
Academic performance     0.238
 Below average 45 (10.5%) 9 (16.4%) 6 (19.4%)  
 Average 142 (33.1%) 22 (40.0%) 10 (32.3%)  
 Above average 242 (56.4%) 24 (43.6%) 15 (48.4%)  
SDQ total difficulties score 8.2 (3.4) 17.2 (1.0) 21.9 (2.8)  < 0.001
Screen time per day, hours (sd) 2.6 (2.4) 3.5 (3.6) 3.8 (3.0) 0.006
Outdoor physical activity time per day, hours (sd) 1.1 (1.8) 1.4 (3.3) 0.8 (0.6) 0.629
Frequency of bad mood      < 0.001
 Never 148 (34.5%) 8 (14.5%) 2 (6.5%)  
 Sometimes 256 (59.7%) 32 (58.2%) 22 (71.0%)  
 Often 25 (5.8%) 15 (27.3%) 7 (22.6%)  
Relationship between children and their parents      < 0.001
 Very bad 2 (0.5%) 3 (5.5%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Bad 9 (2.1%) 8 (14.5%) 4 (12.9%)  
 General 76 (17.7%) 19 (34.5%) 13 (41.9%)  
 Good 205 (47.8%) 18 (32.7%) 12 (38.7%)  
 Very good 137 (31.9%) 7 (12.7%) 2 (6.5%)  
Characteristics of policy to control COVID-19
Restriction for going out of housing community during the past one month     0.037
 No 98 (22.8%) 8 (14.5%) 6 (19.4%)  
 Yes, but go out many times a day 82 (19.1%) 14 (25.5%) 6 (19.4%)  
 Yes, but go out once a day 63 (14.7%) 7 (12.7%) 4 (12.9%)  
 Yes, but go out every two days 84 (19.6%) 11 (20.0%) 2 (6.5%)  
 Yes, but go out every three days or more 81 (18.9%) 14 (25.5%) 7 (22.6%)  
 Yes, can’t go out 21 (4.9%) 1 (1.8%) 6 (19.4%)  
  1. *continues variables were compared by Kruskal–Wallis test; categorical variables were compared by Chi-Square test