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Table 3 Association between characteristics of online courses and SDQ total difficulties score of children

From: The relationship between online courses and mental health among Chinese children

Online courses n Crude model Adjusted modela
β (95%CI) P-value β (95%CI) P-value
Problems of online courses
 No 314 ref ref ref ref
 Difficulty in understanding the content of online courses 169 3.56 (2.64, 4.48)  < 0.001 1.80 (0.89, 2.71)  < 0.001
 Device or internet connection problems 19 1.45 (-0.83, 3.73) 0.212 0.689 (-1.41, 2.79) 0.521
Main type of online courses
 Live courses 303 ref ref ref ref
 Video-recorded courses 164 1.28 (0.30, 2.26) 0.011 0.90 (0.01, 1.80) 0.049
 E-learning material without video 48 0.34 (-1.24, 1.91) 0.676 0.254 (-1.17, 1.68) 0.727
Online courses time per day, hour
  <  = 4(less than or equal to median) 337 ref ref ref ref
  > 4(more than median) 178 0.64 (-0.30, 1.58) 0.184 0.95 (0.09, 1.81) 0.031
  1. aadjusting for region, parental educational level, family monthly income, children’s gender, children’s age, children’s screen time, children’s outdoor physical activity time, children’s academic performance, COVID-19 policy of restrictions for going out of housing community, frequency of children’s bad mood, and relationship between children and their parents