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Table 5 Association between characteristics of online courses and SDQ total difficulties score of children stratified by children’s school stage

From: The relationship between online courses and mental health among Chinese children

Online courses Primary school Secondary school Pinteractionb
Crude model Adjusted modela Crude model Adjusted modela
OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value OR (95%CI) P-value
Problems of online courses
 No ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Difficulty in understanding the content of online courses 3.33 (1.93, 4.73)  < 0.001 1.91 (0.50, 3.31) 0.009 3.87 (2.65, 5.10)  < 0.001 1.54 (0.27, 2.81) 0.018 0.907
 Device or internet connection problems -0.77 (-4.84, 3.31) 0.713 -0.36 (-4.14, 3.42) 0.852 2.72(-0.02, 5.47) 0.053 1.03 (-1.58, 3.64) 0.440 0.558
Main form of online courses
 Live courses ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Video-recorded courses 1.71 (0.27, 3.15) 0.020 1.36 (0.02, 2.70) 0.047 0.91 (-0.69, 2.51) 0.266 0.43 (-0.99, 1.85) 0.553 0.579
E-learning material without video 0.68 (-1.23, 2.59) 0.483 0.26 (-1.48, 1.99) 0.774 0.11(-4.07, 4.29) 0.959 -0.59 (-4.25, 3.07) 0.754 0.933
Online courses time per day, hour
  <  = 4(less than or equal to median) ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  > 4(more than median) 2.52 (0.730, 4.31) 0.006 2.40 (0.73, 4.06) 0.005 0.09 (-1.14, 1.33) 0.884 0.40 (-0.69, 1.48) 0.476 0.079
  1. aadjusting for region, parental education level, family monthly income, children’s gender, children’s age, children’s screen time, children’s outdoor physical activity time, children’s academic performance, COVID-19 policy of restrictions for going out of housing community, frequency of children’s bad mood, and relationship between children and their parents
  2. bPinteraction value for adjusted model