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Table 2 HRU among respondents with depression versus without depression diagnosis and across severity groups – Multivariable results

From: Humanistic and economic burden associated with depression in the United States: a cross-sectional survey analysis

HRU in the past 6 months Respondents without depression diagnosisb
n = 30,478
Respondents with depression diagnosisa
Total (all symptom levels)
n = 8853
No/minimal symptoms
n = 1876
Mild symptoms
n = 2801
Moderate symptoms
n = 1938
Moderately severe symptoms
n = 1376
Severe symptoms
n = 862
Healthcare provider visits, mean ± SE 2.41 ± 0.03 3.61 ± 0.08 5.46 ± 0.17 5.60 ± 0.14 5.78 ± 0.17 6.23 ± 0.22** 6.50 ± 0.3**
ER visits, mean ± SE 0.09 ± 0 0.14 ± 0.01 0.25 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.01 0.26 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02* 0.34 ± 0.03**
Hospitalizations, mean ± SE 0.04 ± 0 0.08 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.02*
  1. Results are based on generalized linear regression models controlling for demographics, health characteristics, and comorbidities as covariates
  2. aRespondents with depression diagnosis: those who self-reported physician diagnosis of depression and reported experiencing depression in the past 12 months
  3. bRespondents without depression diagnosis: those who had no self-reported physician diagnosis of depression, reported not experiencing depression in the past 12 months, and had PHQ-9 scores ≤ 4
  4. *P-value < 0.050 for comparison vs ‘no/minimal symptoms’ severity group
  5. **P-value < 0.010 for comparison vs ‘no/minimal symptoms’ severity group
  6. P-value < 0.001 for comparison vs ‘without depression diagnosis’ group
  7. ER Emergency room, HRU Healthcare resource utilization, SE Standard error