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Table 5 Number of participants assigned to each subgroup and the classification function of the 2- and 4-class models in analysis 2, and the 2-class model in the sensitivity analysis

From: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: neurodevelopmentally and behaviorally indistinguishable from other neurodevelopmental disorders

Group assignment; Classification function (%) Main Analysis Sensitivity Analysis
2-class model 4-class model 2-class model
Children with FASD (n) Children with other neuro developmental disorders (n) Typically developing control children (n) Children with FASD (n) Children with other neuro developmental disorders (n) Typically developing control children (n) Children with FASD (n) Children with ADHD (n) Typically developing control children (n)
Subgroup 1 20 22 6 13 15 6 20 16 6
Subgroup 2 1 6 31 5 4 0 1 6 31
Subgroup 3 0 5 31
Subgroup 4 3 4 0
Children with FASD vs. Typically developing control children and children with other neurodevelopmental disordersa
 Sensitivity (95% CI) 95.2 (82.6–100.0)b 100.0 (n/a)c 95.2 (84.6–100.0)d
 Specificity (95% CI) 56.9 (45.1–69.2)b 55.4 (43.5–67.2)c 62.7 (50.0–74.6)d
 PPV (95% CI) 41.7 (28.2–55.3)b 42.0 (29.0–56.0)c 47.6 (32.0–62.5)d
 NPV (95% CI) 97.4 (91.4–100.0)b 100.0 (n/a)c 97.4 (91.4–100.0)d
Children with FASD and children with other neurodevelopmental disordersa vs. Typically developing control children
 Sensitivity (95% CI) 85.7 (73.5–95.5)e 89.8 (81.1–97.7)f 83.7 (72.1–94.1)g
 Specificity (95% CI) 83.8 (71.0–94.3)e 83.8 (71.4–94.7)f 83.8 (71.0–94.7)g
 PPV (95% CI) 87.5 (78.2–95.7)e 86.1 (75.0–97.1)f 85.7 (74.3–95.3)g
 NPV (95% CI) 81.6 (68.4–94.6)e 88.0 (79.1–95.9)f 81.6 (68.6–93.1)g
  1. ADHD Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CI Confidence interval, FASD Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, n/a Not applicable, NPV Negative predictive value, PPV Positive predictive value
  2. aSensitivity analysis excludes children with Autism Spectrum Disorder from the group of children with other neurodevelopmental disorders
  3. bAssuming subgroup 1 is reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and subgroup 2 is reflective of typically developing control children and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders
  4. cAssuming subgroup 1, 2 and 4 are reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and subgroup 3 is reflective of typically developing control children and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders
  5. dAssuming subgroup 1 is reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and subgroup 2 is reflective of typically developing control children and children with ADHD
  6. eAssuming subgroup 1 is reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders and subgroup 2 is reflective of typically developing control children
  7. fAssuming subgroup 1,2 and 4 are reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and children with other neurodevelopmental disorders and subgroup 2 is reflective of typically developing control children
  8. gAssuming subgroup 1 is reflective of the neurodevelopmental profile of FASD and children with ADHD and subgroup 2 is reflective of typically developing control children