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Table 2 Summary of demographics

From: Associations of negative cognitions, emotional regulation, and depression symptoms across four continents: International support for the cognitive model of depression

  Entire Sample
n = 752
North America
n = 103
Europe
n = 404
South America
n = 108
Asia
n = 136
Age: M (SD) 31.52 (9.07) 32.35 (10.16) 32.89 (8.80) 28.50 (9.47) 29.33 (7.56)
Sex: n (%)
 Female 224 (29.7) 30 (29.1) 147 (36.4) 20 (18.5) 27 (19.9)
 Male 527 (70.1) 72 (69.9) 257 (63.6) 88 (81.5) 109 (80.1)
 Other 1 (.1) 1 (1.0)    
Ethnicity
 White 575 (76.5) 80 (77.7) 395 (97.8) 70 (64.8) 30 (22.1)
 Asian 113 (15.0) 11 (10.7) 5 (1.2) 1 (.9) 97 (71.3)
 Other 64 (8.6) 12 (11.6) 4 (1.0) 37 (34.3) 9 (6.6)
Marital Status
 Single/ Never Married 416 (55.3) 53 (51.5) 214 (53.0) 73 (67.6) 75 (55.1)
 Married 293 (39.0) 40 (38.8) 167 (41.3) 30 (27.8) 56 (41.2)
 Separated/ Divorced 30 (4.0) 9 (8.7) 15 (3.7) 5 (4.6) 2 (1.5)
 Other 13 (1.7) 1 (1.0) 8 (2.0) 1 (.9) 3 (2.2)
Education
 Secondary School or Equivalent 153 (20.3) 17 (16.5) 92 (22.8) 31 (28.7) 13 (9.6)
 Below Bachelor 84 (11.2) 14 (13.6) 40 (9.9) 19 (17.6) 11 (8.1)
 Bachelor’s Degree 201 (26.6) 29 (28.2) 92 (22.8) 18 (16.7) 62 (45.6)
 Above Bachelor 91 (12.1) 13 (12.6) 45 (11.1) 18 (16.7) 14 (10.3)
 Master’s Degree 131 (17.4) 16 (15.5) 76 (18.8) 9 (8.3) 30 (22.1)
 Other 92 (12.1) 14 (13.6) 59 (14.6) 13 (12.0) 6 (4.3)
Annual Income
 Unemployed/ No Annual Income 163 (21.7) 7 (6.8) 107 (26.5) 26 (24.1) 23 (16.9)
 $10,000 - $30,000 272 (36.2) 29 (28.2) 165 (40.8) 34 (31.5) 43 (31.6)
 $30,000 - $50,000 108 (14.4) 24 (23.3) 43 (10.6) 16 (14.8) 25 (18.4)
 $50,000 - $75,000 70 (9.3) 25 (24.3) 20 (5.0) 8 (7.4) 17 (12.5)
 $75,000 and over 42 (5.6) 14 (13.6) 15 (3.7) 7 (6.5) 6 (4.4)
 Other 97 (12.9) 4 (3.8) 54 (13.4) 17 (15.8) 22 (16.2)
Religion
 Christianity 417 (55.5) 70 (68.0) 258 (63.9) 72 (66.7) 16 (11.8)
 Islam 92 (12.2) 2 (1.9) 41 (10.1) NA 49 (36.0)
 Atheism 91 (12.1) 10 (9.7) 57 (14.1) 16 (14.8) 8 (5.9)
 Other 152 (20.3) 21 (20.4) 48 (11.9) 20 (18.6) 63 (46.3)
First Language
 English 180 (23.9) 84 (81.6) 44 (10.9) 10 (9.3) 42 (30.9)
 Other 572 (76.1) 19 (18.5) 360 (89.1) 98 (90.7) 94 (69.1)
Primary Language Spoken at Home
 English 175 (23.3) 84 (81.6) 48 (11.9) 12 (11.1) 31 (22.8)
 Other 577 (76.7) 19 (18.5) 356 (88.1) 96 (88.9) 105 (77.2)
PHQ M (SD) Cronbach’s Alpha 7.90 (5.48).89 8.06 (6.24).93 7.57 (5.34).88 8.55 (5.80).89 8.20 (4.97).87
ATQ M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha 68.34 (29.02).98 70.58 (33.27).99 66.78 (28.00).98 68.16 (30.51).98 71.25 (27.31).98
DAS M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha 93.33 (17.01).84 97.67 (18.41).87 93.23 (16.81).84 94.16 (16.85).80 89.68 (16.00).84
ERQ-Suppression M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha 17.47 (4.68).76 17.18 (4.83).82 17.00 (4.88).77 18.17 (4.56).71 18.48 (3.78).67
ERQ-Reappraisal M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha 18.81 (4.14).81 18.51 (4.54).90 18.65 (4.22).81 19.29 (3.83).71 19.14 (3.81).77
  1. PHQ-8 Patient Health Questionnaire-8 total score, ATQ-N Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Negative total scores, DAS Dysfunctional Attitude Scale total score, ERQ Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, ERQ – Reappraisal ERQ Reappraisal totals score, ERQ Suppression total score