Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of demographics

From: Associations of negative cognitions, emotional regulation, and depression symptoms across four continents: International support for the cognitive model of depression

 

Entire Sample

n = 752

North America

n = 103

Europe

n = 404

South America

n = 108

Asia

n = 136

Age: M (SD)

31.52 (9.07)

32.35 (10.16)

32.89 (8.80)

28.50 (9.47)

29.33 (7.56)

Sex: n (%)

 Female

224 (29.7)

30 (29.1)

147 (36.4)

20 (18.5)

27 (19.9)

 Male

527 (70.1)

72 (69.9)

257 (63.6)

88 (81.5)

109 (80.1)

 Other

1 (.1)

1 (1.0)

   

Ethnicity

 White

575 (76.5)

80 (77.7)

395 (97.8)

70 (64.8)

30 (22.1)

 Asian

113 (15.0)

11 (10.7)

5 (1.2)

1 (.9)

97 (71.3)

 Other

64 (8.6)

12 (11.6)

4 (1.0)

37 (34.3)

9 (6.6)

Marital Status

 Single/ Never Married

416 (55.3)

53 (51.5)

214 (53.0)

73 (67.6)

75 (55.1)

 Married

293 (39.0)

40 (38.8)

167 (41.3)

30 (27.8)

56 (41.2)

 Separated/ Divorced

30 (4.0)

9 (8.7)

15 (3.7)

5 (4.6)

2 (1.5)

 Other

13 (1.7)

1 (1.0)

8 (2.0)

1 (.9)

3 (2.2)

Education

 Secondary School or Equivalent

153 (20.3)

17 (16.5)

92 (22.8)

31 (28.7)

13 (9.6)

 Below Bachelor

84 (11.2)

14 (13.6)

40 (9.9)

19 (17.6)

11 (8.1)

 Bachelor’s Degree

201 (26.6)

29 (28.2)

92 (22.8)

18 (16.7)

62 (45.6)

 Above Bachelor

91 (12.1)

13 (12.6)

45 (11.1)

18 (16.7)

14 (10.3)

 Master’s Degree

131 (17.4)

16 (15.5)

76 (18.8)

9 (8.3)

30 (22.1)

 Other

92 (12.1)

14 (13.6)

59 (14.6)

13 (12.0)

6 (4.3)

Annual Income

 Unemployed/ No Annual Income

163 (21.7)

7 (6.8)

107 (26.5)

26 (24.1)

23 (16.9)

 $10,000 - $30,000

272 (36.2)

29 (28.2)

165 (40.8)

34 (31.5)

43 (31.6)

 $30,000 - $50,000

108 (14.4)

24 (23.3)

43 (10.6)

16 (14.8)

25 (18.4)

 $50,000 - $75,000

70 (9.3)

25 (24.3)

20 (5.0)

8 (7.4)

17 (12.5)

 $75,000 and over

42 (5.6)

14 (13.6)

15 (3.7)

7 (6.5)

6 (4.4)

 Other

97 (12.9)

4 (3.8)

54 (13.4)

17 (15.8)

22 (16.2)

Religion

 Christianity

417 (55.5)

70 (68.0)

258 (63.9)

72 (66.7)

16 (11.8)

 Islam

92 (12.2)

2 (1.9)

41 (10.1)

NA

49 (36.0)

 Atheism

91 (12.1)

10 (9.7)

57 (14.1)

16 (14.8)

8 (5.9)

 Other

152 (20.3)

21 (20.4)

48 (11.9)

20 (18.6)

63 (46.3)

First Language

 English

180 (23.9)

84 (81.6)

44 (10.9)

10 (9.3)

42 (30.9)

 Other

572 (76.1)

19 (18.5)

360 (89.1)

98 (90.7)

94 (69.1)

Primary Language Spoken at Home

 English

175 (23.3)

84 (81.6)

48 (11.9)

12 (11.1)

31 (22.8)

 Other

577 (76.7)

19 (18.5)

356 (88.1)

96 (88.9)

105 (77.2)

PHQ M (SD) Cronbach’s Alpha

7.90 (5.48).89

8.06 (6.24).93

7.57 (5.34).88

8.55 (5.80).89

8.20 (4.97).87

ATQ M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha

68.34 (29.02).98

70.58 (33.27).99

66.78 (28.00).98

68.16 (30.51).98

71.25 (27.31).98

DAS M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha

93.33 (17.01).84

97.67 (18.41).87

93.23 (16.81).84

94.16 (16.85).80

89.68 (16.00).84

ERQ-Suppression M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha

17.47 (4.68).76

17.18 (4.83).82

17.00 (4.88).77

18.17 (4.56).71

18.48 (3.78).67

ERQ-Reappraisal M (SD)Cronbach’s Alpha

18.81 (4.14).81

18.51 (4.54).90

18.65 (4.22).81

19.29 (3.83).71

19.14 (3.81).77

  1. PHQ-8 Patient Health Questionnaire-8 total score, ATQ-N Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Negative total scores, DAS Dysfunctional Attitude Scale total score, ERQ Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, ERQ – Reappraisal ERQ Reappraisal totals score, ERQ Suppression total score