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Table 3 Full structural models

From: Sex differences in dementia: on the potentially mediating effects of educational attainment and experiences of psychological distress

  M1 (conceptual, t1) M2 (final, t1) M3 (final, t2)
β 95% CI p β 95% CI p β 95% CI p
DISTRESS →
 Previous depression 0.605 0.419–0.792 *** 0.614 0.426–0.802 *** 0.628 0.429–0.827 ***
 Chronic loneliness 0.782 0.511–1.052 *** 0.784 0.513–1.055 *** 0.820 0.517–1.124 ***
 Stress 0.338 0.194–0.481 *** 0.345 0.200–0.489 *** 0.322 0.183–0.482 ***
 Satisfaction with social situation 0.724 0.496–0.953 *** 0.713 0.491–0.934 *** 0.683 0.477–0.773 ***
 Self-esteem 0.623 0.422–0.825 *** 0.616 0.419–0.813 *** 0.592 0.412–0.773 ***
DISTRESS → Dementia 0.150 − 0.003 – 0.302 0.167 0.020–0.314 * 0.090 − 0.057 – 0.238 ns.
Education→ DISTRESS − 0.164 0.302–0.804 ** − 0.166 − 0.286 – − 0.047 ** − 0.185 − 0.309 – − 0.061 **
Education → Dementia − 0.022 − 0.160 – 0.115 ns.
Sex → Education − 0.308 − 0.530 – − 0.087 ** − 0.345 − 0.521 – − 0.170 *** − 0.332 − 0.510 – − 0.155 ***
Sex → DISTRESS 0.575 0.302–0.848 *** 0.607 0.361–0.852 *** 0.631 0.380–0.882 ***
Sex → Dementia 0.008 − 0.995 – 1.011 ns.
Sex → Age 5.256 − 12.213 – 18.549 ns. 5.243 1.213–9.273 * 7.452 2.714–12.191 ***
Age → DISTRESS 0.006 − 0.013 – 0.025 ns.
Age → Education − 0.007 − 0.025 – 0.011 ns.
Age → Dementia 0.069 0.044–0.093 *** 0.070 0.047–0.093 *** 0.063 0.042–0.083 ***
APOE ε4 → Dementia 0.231 − 0.003 – 0.465 0.232 − 0.002 – 0.466 0.228 −0.011 – 0.467
Depressionres ↔ Stress res 0.464 0.349–0.579 *** 0.461 0.345–0.577 *** 0.463 0.344–0.583 ***
Self-esteemres ↔ Social situationres 0.196 0.046–0.347 *** 0.203 0.059–0.348 ** 0.223 0.093–0.354 ***
N 861 861 843
χ2 (df) 75.521 (26) 73.107 (30) 72.208 (30)
TLI 0.895 0.921 0.920
RMSEA 0.047 0.041 0.041
WRMR 1.016 1.029 1.024
  1. Note: Unstandardized WLSMV (probit) estimates for paths, p ≤ 0.10; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001