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Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of Participants and follow-up Rates

From: The feasibility of using life skills training in primary schools to improve mental health and academic performance: a pilot study in Kenya

Variable Category Lower Class (2-4) Upper Class (5-7)
Pretest Posttest Follow-up
Rate (%)
F P-Value†† Pretest Posttest Follow-up
Rate (%)
F P-Value††
N = 1072 N = 976 N = 776 N = 697
n(%) n(%) 91.0 n(%) n(%) 89.8
Gender Female 534(49.8) 491(50.3) 91.9 0.3045 0.9345 394(50.8) 354(50.8) 89.8 1.3355 0.2396
Male 538(50.2) 485(49.7) 90.1 382(49.2) 343(49.2) 89.8
Guardianship Both parents 800(74.6) 727(74.5) 90.9 0.6974 0.7551 596(76.8) 544(78.0) 91.3 1.2114 0.2698
Single parent 158(14.7) 143(14.7) 90.5 113(14.6) 94(13.5) 83.2
Others 66(6.2) 61(6.3) 92.4 65(8.4) 57(8.2) 87.7
Missing 48(4.5) 45(4.6)   2(0.3) 2(0.3)  
Marital status of the parents Married 872(81.3) 793(81.3) 90.9 1.8915 0.0806 618(79.6) 564(80.9) 91.3 0.9921 0.4299
Single/divorced 121(11.3) 108(11.1) 89.3 137(17.7) 113(16.2)  
Missing 79(7.4) 75(7.7)   21(2.7) 20(2.9) 95.2
Fathers education level Primary or less 156(14.6) 135(13.8) 86.5 2.3479 0.0057 240(30.9) 210(30.1) 87.5 1.1111 0.3470
Secondary or more 384(35.8) 345(35.3) 89.8 335(43.2) 303(43.5) 90.4
Don’t know 411(38.3) 383(39.2) 93.2 169(21.8) 155(22.2) 91.7
Missing 121(11.3) 113(11.6)   32(4.1) 29(4.2)  
Mothers education level Primary or less 199(18.6) 177(18.1) 88.9 2.5989 0.0021 334(43.0) 302(43.3) 90.4 1.2707 0.2303
Secondary or more 342(31.9) 305(31.3) 89.2 299(38.5) 265(38.0) 88.6
Don’t know 445(41.5) 414(42.4) 93.0 132(17.0) 119(17.1) 90.2
Missing 86(8.0) 80(8.2)   11(1.4) 11(1.6)  
Fathers employment Unemployed 263(24.5) 240(24.6) 91.3 1.7293 0.1123 230(29.6) 211(30.3) 91.7 0.2899 0.9417
Employed 672(62.7) 611(62.6) 90.9 489(63.0) 435(62.4) 89.0
Missing 137(12.8) 125(12.8) 91.2 57(7.3) 51(7.3) 89.5
Mothers employment Unemployed 704(65.7) 643(65.9) 91.3 0.3721 0.8967 422(54.4) 381(54.7) 90.3 1.4625 0.1893
Employed 284(26.5) 255(26.1) 89.8 327(42.1) 293(42.0) 89.6
Missing 84(7.8) 78(8.0)   27(3.5) 23(3.3)  
Region Peri-urban 593(55.3) 547(56.0) 92.2 5.9956 <0.0001 391(50.4) 351(50.4) 89.8 9.8356 <0.0001
Rural 479(44.7) 429(44.0) 89.6 385(49.6) 346(49.6) 89.9
Class Class 2 (5) 263(24.5) 251(25.7) 95.4 4.2580 <0.0001 309(39.8) 270(38.7) 87.4 3.8912 <0.0001
Class 3 (6) 254(23.7) 225(23.1) 88.6 376(48.5) 346(49.6) 92.0
Class 4 (7) 286(26.7) 244(25.0) 85.3 88(11.3) 78(11.2) 88.6
  Missing 51(4.8) 48(4.9)   3(0.4) 3(0.4)  
Age in years Mean(Median) 8.8(9.0) 8.7(9.0) n/a 0.8253 0.5506 12.5(12.0) 12.4(12.0) n/a 2.4314 0.0252
Attentiona Mean(Median) 56.0(55.0) 56(55.0) n/a 1.6195 0.1398 54.0(51.0) 53.9(51.0) n/a 1.0493 0.3925
Internalizinga Mean(Median) 60.2(61.0) 60(61.0) n/a 0.3165 0.9284 60.0(61.0) 59.8(61.0) n/a 0.7167 0.6363
Externalizinga Mean(Median) 54.2(54.0) 54(54.0) n/a 0.7558 0.6051 51.6(51.0) 51.3(51.0) n/a 0.9881 0.4326
Totala Mean(Median) 56.7(57.0) 56(57.0) n/a 0.6031 0.7279 55.7(54.0) 55.4(54.0) n/a 0.5637 0.7593
  1. aCBCL for Class 2 to 4 and YSR for Class 5 to 7; ††Multivariate Pillai test