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Table 3 Independent Predictors of Academic performance in (Lower classes 2-4) and (Upper classes 5-7) after Interventiona

From: The feasibility of using life skills training in primary schools to improve mental health and academic performance: a pilot study in Kenya

Parameter Category Aggregate English Kiswahili Mathematics Science Social Studies
β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β)
Lower classes (2-4)
Gender Female Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Male 1.93(-3.55 to 7.41) 0.08(-1.69 to 1.86) 0.80(-1.33 to 2.92) 0.37(-2.00 to 2.74) 0.11(-1.96 to 2.18) 1.09(-0.92 to 3.11)
Guardianship Both Parents Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single parent 3.27(-7.34 to 13.88) 1.54(-1.91 to 4.98) 2.71(-1.40 to 6.83) 0.86(-3.73 to 5.46) 0.09(-3.93 to 4.10) -2.63(-6.53 to 1.28)
Others -5.49(-19.89 to 8.91) 0.28(-4.39 to 4.96) -3.9(-9.48 to 1.68) -0.97(-7.21 to 5.26) -1.64(-7.09 to 3.8) 0.64(-4.66 to 5.93)
Marital Status Married Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single/divorced -4.01(-16.33 to 8.31) -1.23(-5.23 to 2.77) 0.62(-4.16 to 5.39) -1.90(-7.24 to 3.43) -3.44(-8.10 to 1.21) 4.91(0.37 to 9.44)*
Fathers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 11.86(2.93 to 20.79)** 2.92(0.02 to 5.82)* 1.58(-1.88 to 5.04) 3.43(-0.44 to 7.30) -0.31(-3.69 to 3.07) 4.82(1.54 to 8.11)**
Don’t know 10.11(0.41 to 19.81)* 1.73(-1.42 to 4.88) 2.50(-1.26 to 6.26) -0.30(-4.50 to 3.90) -0.47(-4.14 to 3.20) 4.51(0.94 to 8.08)*
Mothers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more -5.31(-13.80 to 3.18) -3.01(-5.77 to -0.26)* -2.08(-5.37 to 1.21) -0.03(-3.70 to 3.65) 1.72(-1.49 to 4.93) -3.77(-6.89 to -0.64)*
Don’t know 4.67(-4.42 to 13.76) -2.20(-5.15 to 0.75) -1.13(-4.65 to 2.40) 4.80(0.86 to 8.74)* 2.36(-1.08 to 5.80) 1.02(-2.32 to 4.36)
Fathers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed -2.08(-8.32 to 4.17) -0.08(-2.11 to 1.95) 2.08(-0.34 to 4.50) -2.31(-5.01 to 0.39) -2.5(-4.86 to -0.14)* 0.30(-2.00 to 2.60)
Mothers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed 2.12(-4.26 to 8.50) -0.52(-2.59 to 1.55) 0.11(-2.37 to 2.58) 1.91(-0.85 to 4.67) 0.41(-2.01 to 2.82) 0.15(-2.20 to 2.50)
Region Peri-Urban Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Rural 10.62(4.74 to 16.51)*** -0.37(-2.28 to 1.54) 0.18(-2.1 to 2.46) 7.29(4.74 to 9.84)*** 0.41(-1.81 to 2.64) 2.93(0.77 to 5.10)**
Class Two Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Three -5.91(-13.44 to 1.62) -0.78(-3.23 to 1.66) -3.08(-6 to -0.17)* -4.16(-7.42 to -0.90)* 0.8(-2.04 to 3.65) -0.22(-2.99 to 2.55)
Four 5.09(-3.61 to 13.80) 4.29(1.46 to 7.11)** -5.85(-9.22 to -2.48)*** -1.51(-5.28 to 2.26) 3.93(0.64 to 7.22)* 3.62(0.42 to 6.82)*
Attention Attention -0.47(-0.99 to 0.04) 0.005(-0.16 to 0.17) -0.01(-0.21 to 0.19) -0.04(-0.27 to 0.18) -0.28(-0.48 to -0.09)** -0.13(-0.32 to 0.06)
Internalizing Internalizing -0.11(-0.64 to 0.41) -0.06(-0.23 to 0.11) 0.06(-0.14 to 0.27) 0.003(-0.22 to 0.23) -0.02(-0.22 to 0.18) -0.04(-0.24 to 0.15)
Externalizing Externalizing -0.26(-0.79 to 0.26) 0.03(-0.15 to 0.20) 0.09(-0.11 to 0.30) -0.17(-0.4 to 0.06) -0.07(-0.27 to 0.13) -0.09(-0.29 to 0.10)
Total Problems Total 0.34(-0.58 to 1.25) 0.05(-0.25 to 0.35) -0.20(-0.55 to 0.16) 0.11(-0.28 to 0.51) 0.16(-0.19 to 0.50) 0.12(-0.22 to 0.45)
Age in years Age -1.20(-3.45 to 1.05) -0.63(-1.36 to 0.10) -0.28(-1.15 to 0.59) -0.20(-1.17 to 0.78) -0.43(-1.28 to 0.42) 0.29(-0.54 to 1.12)
Upper classes (5-7)
Gender Female Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Male 1.95 (-3.04 to 6.93) 1.13 (-0.40 to 2.66) -0.56 (-2.45 to 1.33) 1.56 (-0.74 to 3.85) 0.54 (-1.75 to 2.84) 0.10 (-1.70 to 1.90)
Guardianship Both Parents Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single parent -5.34 (-15.07 to 4.39) -2.76 (-5.75 to 0.23) -4.72 (-8.40 to -1.04)* 0.85 (-3.62 to 5.33) 0.72 (-3.75 to 5.20) 0.09 (-3.42 to 3.61)
Others -7.53 (-19.19 to 4.12) -3.25 (-6.83 to 0.32) -3.04 (-7.45 to 1.37) 2.85 (-2.51 to 8.21) -2.29 (-7.66 to 3.07) -2.31 (-6.52 to 1.90)
Marital Status Married Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single/divorced 4.31 (-5.99 to 14.62) 0.69 (-2.47 to 3.85) 2.35 (-1.55 to 6.25) -3.18 (-7.92 to 1.55) 3.48 (-1.26 to 8.22) 0.75 (-2.97 to 4.47)
Fathers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 5.06 (-0.90 to 11.02) 1.62 (-0.21 to 3.45) 2.02 (-0.24 to 4.28) 1.12 (-1.63 to 3.86) -0.83 (-3.57 to 1.91) 1.27 (-0.88 to 3.42)
Don’t know 3.41 (-4.43 to 11.26) -0.52 (-2.93 to 1.89) 1.64 (-1.33 to 4.61) 1.26 (-2.35 to 4.87) -1.17 (-4.78 to 2.44) 2.67 (-0.17 to 5.50)
Mothers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more -3.23 (-8.99 to 2.53) -2.01 (-3.78 to -0.24)* 0.74 (-1.44 to 2.92) -0.93 (-3.58 to 1.71) 0.42 (-2.23 to 3.07) -0.90 (-2.98 to 1.18)
Don’t know 0.38 (-7.17 to 7.94) -1.04 (-3.36 to 1.28) 1.99 (-0.87 to 4.85) -0.57 (-4.04 to 2.90) -1.67 (-5.15 to 1.80) 1.10 (-1.62 to 3.83)
Fathers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed -0.52 (-5.98 to 4.95) 0.02 (-1.66 to 1.70) 0.46 (-1.61 to 2.53) -0.27 (-2.78 to 2.25) 0.11 (-2.41 to 2.63) -1.03 (-3.01 to 0.94)
Mothers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed -3.04 (-8.04 to 1.95) -0.35 (-1.88 to 1.19) -1.31 (-3.20 to 0.58) -0.48 (-2.77 to 1.82) -1.64 (-3.94 to 0.66) 1.28 (-0.52 to 3.08)
Region Peri-Urban Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Rural 8.37 (3.28 to 13.46)** 2.73 (1.16 to 4.29)*** -1.85 (-3.78 to 0.07) -1.30 (-3.64 to 1.04) 2.95 (0.61 to 5.30)* 5.63 (3.79 to 7.47) ***
Class Five Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Six -7.70 (-13.25 to -2.15)** -3.80 (-5.51 to -2.10)*** 1.53 (-0.57 to 3.63) 0.30 (-2.25 to 2.86) -4.97 (-7.52 to -2.41)*** -0.89 (-2.89 to 1.12)
Seven 2.61 (-6.69 to 11.91) -0.20 (-3.06 to 2.65) 4.22 (0.70 to 7.74)* 3.14 (-1.14 to 7.42) -4.20 (-8.48 to 0.08) -1.49 (-4.85 to 1.87)
Attention Attention -0.43 (-0.85 to -0.002)* -0.05 (-0.18 to 0.08) -0.01 (-0.17 to 0.15) -0.03 (-0.23 to 0.16) -0.16 (-0.35 to 0.04) -0.13 (-0.28 to 0.03)
Internalizing Internalizing -0.27 (-0.82 to 0.28) -0.12 (-0.29 to 0.05) -0.07 (-0.28 to 0.14) -0.15 (-0.40 to 0.11) 0.04 (-0.21 to 0.29) 0.07 (-0.13 to 0.26)
Externalizing Externalizing 0.10 (-0.38 to 0.58) 0.06 (-0.08 to 0.21) -0.01 (-0.19 to 0.18) -0.16 (-0.39 to 0.06) 0.11 (-0.11 to 0.33) 0.03 (-0.14 to 0.21)
Total Problems Total 0.62 (-0.18 to 1.43) 0.16 (-0.09 to 0.41) 0.10 (-0.20 to 0.41) 0.19 (-0.18 to 0.56) 0.10 (-0.27 to 0.47) 0.002 (-0.29 to 0.29)
Age in years Age -3.06 (-5.23 to -0.9)** -0.74 (-1.41 to -0.08)* 0.37 (-0.45 to 1.19) -0.59 (-1.58 to 0.41) -1.14 (-2.13 to -0.14)* -0.64 (-1.43 to 0.14)
  1. a Results from multivariate model: Ref.-Reference category;β- Beta co-efficient is then the average difference in Academic performance scores between the category for the reference group and the category for which is the comparison group. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001