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Table 4 Linear Mixed Model Assessing Predictors of Academic performance in (Lower classes 2-4) and (Upper classes 5-7) after Interventiona

From: The feasibility of using life skills training in primary schools to improve mental health and academic performance: a pilot study in Kenya

Parameter Category Aggregate English Kiswahili Mathematics Science Social Studies
β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β) β(95%C.I β)
Lower classes (2-4)
Gender Female Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Male -3.61(-9.96 to 2.74) -3.98(-5.46 to -2.49)*** -3.18(-4.76 to -1.6)*** 1.16(-0.61 to 2.93) 1.55(-0.22 to 3.32) 1.0(-0.60 to 2.60)
Guardianship Both Parents Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single parent -11.61(-23.71 to 0.49) -1.2(-4.02 to 1.61) -4.28(-7.3 to -1.27)** 1.37(-4.73 to 1.99) -1.85(-5.23 to 1.53) -1.43(-4.44 to 1.58)
Others 1.67(-14.41 to 17.74) 0.14(-3.61 to 3.89) -1.59(-5.63 to 2.44) 3.89(-0.58 to 8.36) -1.85(-6.34 to 2.63) 0.67(-3.35 to 4.69)
Marital Status Married Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single/divorced 4.0(-10.0 to 17.99) -1.38(-4.65 to 1.88) 1.39(-2.08 to 4.87) -0.22(-4.09 to 3.65) 3.2(-0.70 to 7.10) -0.15(-3.66 to 3.33)
Fathers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 0.98(-9.17 to 11.13) -0.41(-2.76 to 1.93) 0.27(-2.23 to 2.77) -1.52(-4.32 to 1.29) 2.4(-0.41 to 5.21) 0.44(-2.07 to 2.96)
Don’t know -0.78(-11.85 to 10.30) -1.18(-3.75 to 1.39) -0.77(-3.55 to 2.01) -1.3(-4.38 to 1.78) 1.7(-1.40 to 4.79) 0.36(-2.40 to 3.13)
Mothers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 2.86(-6.98 to 12.71) 0.57(-1.70 to 2.84) 1.04(-1.38 to 3.47) 0.56(-2.15 to 3.28) 0.04(-2.71 to 2.79) 1.30(-1.14 to 3.75)
Don’t know 2.46(-8.12 to 13.04) 1.06(-1.39 to 3.51) -0.36(-3.00 to 2.29) 0.07(-2.89 to 3.03) 0.07(-2.89 to 3.03) 1.75(-0.89 to 4.40)
Fathers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed -3.74(-11.12 to 3.63) -1.08(-2.81 to 0.64) -0.31(-2.14 to 1.53) -1.65(-3.67 to 0.38) -0.46(-2.52 to 1.60) -0.69(-2.51 to 1.13)
Mothers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed 6.65(-0.71 to 14.02) 1.76(0.03 to 3.49)* 0.99(-0.85 to 2.82) 0.33(-1.73 to 2.39) 2.06(-0.01 to 4.13)* 1.42(-0.42 to 3.27)
Region Peri-Urban Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Rural 2.11(-13.55 to 17.19) -2.59(-6.5 to 1.21) -0.69(-3.82 to 2.27) 1.30(-1.16 to 10.71) 1.59(-2.28 to 5.67) 0.77(-2.79 to 4.24)
Class Two Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Three -11.84(-35.18 to 9.01) 1.33(-2.78 to 5.4) 1.25(-2.86 to 5.00) -5.74(-11.93 to -0.07) -2.34(-7.95 to 2.76) -5.00(-9.37 to -0.89)*
Four -0.26(-20.53 to 18.2) 3.80(0.17 to 7.29)* 4.82(0.40 to 8.86)* -5.51(-11.94 to 0.57) -1.39(-6.84 to 3.64) -0.51(-4.47 to 3.06)
Attention Attention -1.55(-2.33 to -0.78)*** -0.31(-0.49 to -0.13)*** -0.41(-0.60 to -0.22)*** -0.29(-0.50 to -0.08)** -0.22(-0.43 to -0.003)* -0.27(-0.47 to -0.08)**
Internalizing Internalizing 0.39(-0.38 to 1.16) 0.22(0.04 to 0.4)* 0.02(-0.17 to 0.21) 0.05(-0.16 to 0.27) 0.06(-0.16 to 0.27) 0.07(-0.12 to 0.26)
Externalizing Externalizing -0.05(-0.87 to 0.77) 0.04(-0.15 to 0.23) 0.004(-0.21 to 0.2) -0.05(-0.28 to 0.17) -0.04(-0.27 to 0.19) -0.04(-0.24 to 0.16)
Total Problems Total 0.30(-1.08 to 1.68) -0.12(-0.44 to 0.20) 0.14(-0.20 to 0.48) 0.10(-0.28 to 0.48) 0.09(-0.29 to 0.47) 0.1(-0.24 to 0.44)
Age in years Age -8.13(-10.67 to -5.58)*** -1.95(-2.55 to -1.36)*** -1.79(-2.43 to -1.16)*** -1.24(-1.95 to -0.53)*** -1.88(-2.6 to -1.17)*** -1.50(-2.14 to -0.86)***
Time Pre-Post 14.09(8.08 to 20.1)*** 3.60(2.20 to 4.99)*** 4.26(2.76 to 5.75)*** 1.30(-0.35 to 2.96) 1.25(-0.43 to 2.92) 3.99(2.48 to 5.49)***
Upper classes (5-7)
Gender Female Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Male 7.80(2.77 to 12.83)** -0.10(-1.25 to 1.06) -0.57(-1.76 to 0.63) 1.17(-0.38 to 2.73) 4.84(3.20 to 6.48)*** 2.75(1.46 to 4.04)***
Guardianship Both Parents Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single parent -5.28(-15.03 to 4.46) -0.30(-2.53 to 1.92) 0.002(-2.30 to 2.31) -1.94(-4.93 to 1.06) -3.11(-6.29 to 0.07) 0.09(-2.44 to 2.62)
Others 10.59(-1.13 to 22.31) 1.82(-0.86 to 4.51) 2.55(-0.23 to 5.34) 1.97(-1.65 to 5.58) 1.65(-2.18 to 5.48) 3.10(0.10 to 6.10)*
Marital Status Married Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Single/divorced 14.99(4.77 to 25.21)** 2.88(0.54 to 5.21)* 2.34(-0.07 to 4.76) 2.01(-1.14 to 5.17) 5.19(1.85 to 8.54)** 2.21(-0.42 to 4.84)
Fathers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 3.49(-2.49 to 9.46) 0.92(-0.45 to 2.29) 0.23(-1.20 to 1.66) 0.81(-1.03 to 2.66) 0.79(-1.17 to 2.75) 0.43(-1.11 to 1.97)
Don’t know -7.34(-15.34 to 0.65) -0.87(-2.71 to 0.97) -0.82(-2.74 to 1.10) -2.07(-4.54 to 0.40) -1.86(-4.48 to 0.75) -2.10(-4.16 to -0.05)*
Mothers education level Primary or less Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Secondary or more 3.46(-2.39 to 9.31) 0.76(-0.57 to 2.09) 0.70(-0.68 to 2.08) 0.96(-0.82 to 2.74) -0.21(-2.11 to 1.69) 0.98(-0.53 to 2.48)
Don’t know 1.88(-6.11 to 9.87) -1.03(-2.86 to 0.79) -0.28(-2.18 to 1.62) 2.67(0.20 to 5.13)* -0.01(-2.64 to 2.62) 0.45(-1.61 to 2.52)
Fathers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed -3.60(-9.21 to 2.02) -0.74(-2.02 to 0.54) -0.35(-1.68 to 0.99) -2.04(-3.76 to -0.31)* -1.27(-3.11 to 0.57) 0.53(-0.91 to 1.98)
Mothers employment Unemployed Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Employed 1.24(-3.86 to 6.35) -0.06(-1.22 to 1.11) 0.29(-0.93 to 1.50) 1.26(-0.32 to 2.84) 0.26(-1.41 to 1.94) 0.11(-1.20 to 1.42)
Region Peri-Urban Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Rural 28.33(6.82 to 50.09)*** 1.8(-1.99 to 5.66) 1.94(-1.68 to 5.74) 11.61(6.43 to 16.60)*** 3.6(-2.82 to 9.94) 0.08(-6.11 to 6.45)
Class Five Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
Six 11.15(1.65 to 21.26)* 2.74(0.51 to 5.00)* -0.13(-2.52 to 2.41) 4.78(1.99 to 7.59)** 1.70(-2.38 to 5.81) 2.32(-0.05 to 4.94)
Seven 24.42(7.52 to 40.86)** 4.56(0.76 to 8.29)* 1.99(-2.00 to 6.15) 9.28(4.94 to 13.51)*** 5.11(-0.96 to 10.95) 4.27(0.13 to 8.54)*
Attentions problems Attention -0.82(-1.39 to -0.25)** -0.15(-0.29 to -0.02)* -0.18(-0.32 to -0.05)** -0.19(-0.37 to -0.02)* -0.18(-0.37 to 0.002) -0.09(-0.24 to 0.06)
Internalizing problems Internalizing 0.35(-0.42 to 1.12) 0.09(-0.09 to 0.27) 0.08(-0.1 to 0.27) 0.22(-0.03 to 0.46) 0.004(-0.25 to 0.26) -0.01(-0.21 to 0.19)
Externalizing problems Externalizing -0.72(-1.4 to -0.05)* -0.17(-0.32 to -0.02)* -0.03(-0.19 to 0.14) 0.03(-0.18 to 0.24) -0.27(-0.49 to -0.05)* -0.21(-0.38 to -0.04)*
Total Problems Total -0.07(-1.23 to 1.1) -0.04(-0.3 to 0.23) -0.11(-0.38 to 0.17) -0.2(-0.56 to 0.16) 0.06(-0.32 to 0.44) 0.11(-0.19 to 0.41)
Age in years Age -8.71(-11.01 to -6.42)*** -1.83(-2.36 to -1.31)*** -1.37(-1.92 to -0.82)*** -2.00(-2.7 to -1.29)*** -1.77(-2.52 to -1.02)*** -1.61(-2.2 to -1.02)***
Time Pre-Post 11.44(6.06 to 16.82)*** 2.61(1.38 to 3.84)*** 0.91(-0.37 to 2.19) 2.44(0.76 to 4.11)** 2.41(0.65 to 4.16)** 2.8(1.42 to 4.17)***
  1. a Results from a single mixed model adjusting for all response variables allowing intercept and class grade to vary by school group. : Ref.-Reference category;β- Beta coefficient is then the average difference in Academic performance scores between the category for the reference group and the category for which the comparison group; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001