Skip to main content

Investigating the relationship between satisfaction of basic psychological needs, general health, and some background variables in the Iranian older adults: a cross-sectional study

Abstract

Background

Promoting the health and mental health (MH) of the older adults making up a large part of the world’s population in the coming years can provide the necessary conditions for their health and well-being of them. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPNs), general health (GH), and some variables in Iranian older adults.

Methods

The present descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 780 older adults from Sarpol-e Zahab (Kermanshah) in 2019 including the study by multi-stage cluster random sampling. The data collection tool was BPNs satisfaction and GH questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire of individual and background information. Was used for data analysis using the SPSS version 16 program and descriptive statistics and tests Pearson correlation coefficient, chi-square test, independent-sample T-test, and multivariate linear regression.

Results

In the present study, participating a total of 780 older adult men aged 73.0 ± 29.32 years. There was a significant relationship between the satisfaction of BPNs and GH (p <  0.001). Also, 41% of the older adults were in poor GH and 30% were high in BPNs. Multiple logistic regression showed that the BPNs, age, income satisfaction, weather, and war zone were strong predictors of GH. the adjusted R2 value of 0.55 shows that the model described 55% of changes in the GH score.

Conclusion

According to the findings of the study on the relationship between the satisfaction of BPNs and GH, providing insurance, social and economic support by developing health policies, creating supportive health environments, strengthening community action, and developing individual skills in the older adults can help improve their MH and that of the community.

Peer Review reports

Background

Today, for the first time in human history, the life expectancy of many countries is 60 years or more. In low- and middle-income countries, this increase in life expectancy has been due to a large reduction in mortality, especially during childbirth, childhood, and death due to infectious diseases, and in high-income countries due to reduced mortality in the older adults [1].

According to the census of 1996 and 2001, people aged 60 and older in Iran were 6.62 and 7.27%, and in 2011, people aged 60 and older were equal to 8.26%. It is expected that in 2031, about 25–30% of the population of Iran will be 50 years and older [2]. The United Nations estimates that the population over the age of 65 will increase from one in 11 people in 2019 to six in 11 people in 2050 [3].

Aging is inevitable for humans. Aging, which is caused by genetic and environmental factors, is progressive and irreversible causing disability in the body without exception. This aging process in older adults is associated with diseases that mainly include chronic non-communicable diseases, cancer, and MH disorders that accelerate the body’s disability [4, 5].

Healthy aging is defined as the ability to lead a healthy lifestyle and be relatively free from disease or disability [6], and this is more likely in those who actively participate in activities to improve their health and well-being [7]. By raising the health level of the older adults, the GH of the community also increases. For human beings to be satisfied with life, it is necessary to meet a set of physical, social, and psychological needs [8].

One of the important components of quality of life in individuals is MH [9]. Economic problems, physical illnesses, disability, isolation due to retirement, and lack of proper community approach to the older adults can somehow reduce the social value and strengthen the incidence of psychological problems [10]. Satisfaction of psychological needs is a strong predictor of MH and is the basis for experiencing happiness and health, leading to the well-being of society [11].

According to the self-determination theory, the three basic needs of the psychological field that must be met are autonomy, competence, and relatedness [12]. Autonomy refers to a person’s desire to freely pursue his activities and the role of the individual’s will in doing work. Competence means the ability to perform tasks and to what extent the individual’s ability plays a role in achieving the desired goals. A relatedness is a form of social impact indicating a sense of belonging to those who are important to the individual [13].

Social participation is a determinant of active aging [14] and there is ample evidence that social participation can have positive consequences for both physical [15] and MH [16]. Social support and communication networks through social participation provide information that helps participants make better health and medical choices, so they have a healthier lifestyle [17].

Social participation provides positive psychological states, such as high self-esteem, a sense of belonging, and purpose in life, and has a positive effect on MH [15]. Social participation also has a protective effect against reduced physical function [18]. In addition, studies have shown that there is a relationship between loss of autonomy, deteriorating health, hospitalization, the onset of depressive symptoms, and apathy [19]. People feel competent when they can participate in experiences and activities in which they use their skills and expertise [20]. The older adults’ sense of competence is affected by changes in cognitive competencies as well as physical limitations and injuries [21]. Accordingly, meeting BPNs, such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness can help reduce mental diseases, such as depression and anxiety, and mobility reduction in older adults.

Psychological problems can be studied from various aspects, including ethnicity and race. Obstacles, such as differences in language and special beliefs in the older adults of specific races and ethnicities can make it difficult to diagnose and interpret psychological disorders. One of the ethnic groups living in Iran is the Kurds, who are the fifth ethnic group in the country in terms of population. Observance of age hierarchy and respect for the older adults are among the ancient customs among them. The Kurdish older adults have special social conditions due to the wars in the early years after Iran’s revolution and the 8-year war imposed by Iraq, which undoubtedly affected their MH [22]. War and displacement are among the destructive factors affecting MH [23]. Another factor affecting human MH has been the impact of climate [24]. The importance of environmental risk factors on MH outcomes has been considered [25]. Based on the evidence, exposure to extreme heat has negative effects on MH [26].

According to studies conducted in different parts of the world, older adults have high levels of mental disorders, indicating the need for careful assessment of MH and BPNs [27,28,29,30,31]. Moreover, studies on the self-determination theory and the older adults in nursing homes or hospitals have further emphasized the relationship between the three BPNs, well-being, and depression [32, 33]. However, according to the studies, none of the studies aimed to identify the relationship between BPNs and GH and individual and background factors (climate and war zone) in older adults.

Mental disorders are important in both sexes, but considering that in the Sarpol-e Zahab region (one of the Kurdish and war-torn regions of Iran) men play a major role in providing family income, any physical and mental disorders in addition to threatening the individual’s health, seriously affects the health of the family. Therefore, due to the importance of the subject and limited research in this regard, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the satisfaction of BPNs, GH, and some variables in male older adults in Sarpol-e Zahab.

Methods

Study area, design, and population

The present descriptive-correlational study was conducted in 2019 on the older adults of Sarpol-e Zahab city of Kermanshah. The older adults were selected from health centers. According to the statistics of the health center of this city in 2019, it had a population of more than 88 thousand people, of which 9054 people are over 60 years old. One thousand three hundred four older adults women and 1280 older adults men live in urban areas and 3515 older adults women and 2913 older adults men live in rural areas. Currently, the integrated care program at the city level is being implemented by 10 urban and rural centers and 50 health centers along with four community health centers some of these care include mental health. The study population is older adults men in Sarpol-e Zahab city.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The inclusion criteria consisted of men aged 60 years and older, satisfaction with cooperation, living in Sarpol-e-Zahab city for at least 1 year, and no mental problems approved by a doctor. The exclusion criteria were unwillingness to cooperate and incomplete questionnaires.

Sample size estimation and sampling procedure

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the BPNs, GH, and some variables in older adults. The study population was older adult men in Sarpol-e-Zahab city. The sample size was estimated based on the following formula with Z = 1.96, P = 0.5, and d = 0.05.

$${\boldsymbol{N}}_{\mathbf{1}}=\frac{{\boldsymbol{Z}}^{\mathbf{2}}{}_{\mathbf{1}-\propto /\mathbf{2}}{} \ast \boldsymbol{P}\ast \left(\mathbf{1}-\boldsymbol{P}\right)}{{\boldsymbol{d}}^{\mathbf{2}}}$$

The sample size was based on a 95% confidence level, and 5% precision, and the probability of prevalence of mental disorders was about 50% equal to 385 older adults. Due to cluster sampling and considering the design effect equal to 1.7 to 2, the number of samples was estimated at 780 older adults.

Using multi-stage cluster sampling, 780 older adults were selected. First, urban and rural areas were selected as the first class (stratified sampling), then health centers with warm or temperate climates were selected as the second class (stratified sampling). Then, by cluster sampling method and based on the population share of the defined classes of health centers, half of the male older adults of those centers have randomly entered the study (based on the census list in the centers) in two subgroups of 60–75 years and over 75 years. The self-report questionnaires were completed after the written consent of the older adults.

Data collection and procedures

Instrumentation

The questionnaires used in this study included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Questionnaire (BNSQ), and a Researcher-made questionnaire of personal and background information.

General health questionnaire (GHQ-28)

This questionnaire was first designed by Goldberg in 1972, and in this study, its 28-item form was used, identifying discomfort in less than a month. It has 4 subscales, including physical symptoms, anxiety, sleep disorder symptoms, social functioning, and depressive symptoms. Each subscale has 7 questions and each of the four domains is given a score and the whole questionnaire (28 questions) is given a score. Thus, this scale gives 5 separate scores. In terms of answering the questions, the subject should complete the questionnaire using a four-point Likert scale (0, 1, 2, 3) according to their health status during the past month. On each scale, score 6 and above, and in total score 22 and above indicate pathological symptoms. Scores in the subscales and the whole questionnaire are “none or minimum (0-6), (0-22)”, “mild (7-11), (40-23)”, “average (16-12), (60-41)”, “severe (21-17), (84-61)” [34]. In Likert scoring, the maximum score is 84 and the cut-off point is 23. The translation, validity, and reliability of this questionnaire have been confirmed by Iranian researchers [35].

Basic psychological Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (BNSQ)

The questionnaire was designed by Guardian, Desi, and Ryan (2000) to measure the sense of support for the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The questionnaire consists of 21 questions scored on a 7-point Likert scale from absolutely true to not at all true [12]. A higher score in each area indicates a more favorable status. The minimum and maximum scores of the questionnaire are 21 and 147, respectively. Scores of 21 to 42 indicate low BPNs, scores of 42 to 105 indicate moderate BPNs, and scores above 105 indicate high BPNs. The translation, validity, and reliability of this questionnaire have been confirmed by Iranian researchers [36, 37].

Personal and background information questionnaire

This questionnaire includes 11 questions examining the personal and background information of the older adults (age, income satisfaction, place of residence, marital status, type of life) as well as the type of climate (temperate and warm) and the war zone.

Statistical analysis

The data were entered into SPSS version 16 for statistical analysis. Chi-square, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. The normality of the data was assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the significance level was less than 0.05 in the tests. Multiple linear regression was used to test the effect of BPNs and personal and background information variables on GH. GH was used as the dependent variable and BPNs and personal and background information variables as the independent variables.

Results

The present descriptive correlational study was performed on 780 older adults men aged 60 to over 70 years. The mean age of the older adults was 73.0 ± 29.32 years. Moreover, 85.64% of the participants were married, 96% were with family and other personal and background information variables are described in Table 1. The mean scores of BPNs and GH and their subscales are shown in Table 2.

Table 1 Participants’ personal and background information in the research
Table 2 The mean scores of variables

The results showed that 41% of the older adults were in poor health status, 30% were high in BPNs, and 70% were at a moderate level. The correlation between the composite score of GH status (healthy and disorder) and the composite score of BPNs (low, moderate, and high) are shown in Table 3, which there was a statistically significant relationship between them (p <  0.001). The percentage of people with high BPNs in people with normal GH is more than people with a GH disorder.

Table 3 Relationship of basic psychological needs with general health

The correlation between personal and background information and the composite score of BPNs is shown in Table 4. There was a significant relationship between the composite score of BPNs and the variables of age, climate, and income satisfaction (P <  0.001). Also, the Chi-square test did not show a significant relationship between the composite score of BPNs and place of residence, marital status, living status, and war zone (P > .05).

Table 4 Relationship of personal and background information variables with basic psychological needs

The correlation between personal and background information and the combined score of GH status is shown in Table 5. There was a significant relationship between GH and age, climate, income satisfaction, living conditions, and war zone (P <  0.001). In addition, the Chi-square test did not show a significant relationship between the combined score of GH status, place of residence, and marital status (P > 0.05).

Table 5 Relationship of personal and background information variables with general health

Predictors of general health

A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to test the effect of BPNs and personal and background information variables on GH. The dependent variable of GH and BPNs and personal and background information were independent variables. As shown in Table 6, The BPNs and age, income satisfaction, weather, and war zone were strong predictors of GH. the adjusted R2 value of 0.55 shows that the model described 55% of changes in the GH score.

Table 6 Multivariate regression analysis of the predictors of general health in the basic psychological need and personal and background information variables

Discussion

The current study aimed to investigate the correlation between the satisfaction of BPNs, GH, and some affecting variables in the older adults. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the composite score of BPNs and the composite score of GH status. The percentage of people with high BPNs in people with normal GH was more than people with GH disorders. These findings can be explained by the fact that the satisfaction of BPNs has a positive effect on motivational variables, including intrinsic motivation. In other words, if the needs are satisfactorily met, people will be effectively involved in activities and achieve positive performance. The energy from satisfying psychological needs empowers the personality and the individual spontaneously engages in activities that increase MH [20].

The study by Behzadnia et al. [38] showed that illness and depression are a function of BPNs frustration. In the study by Okun et al. [39], it was reported that low psychological basic need causes poor sleep quality. Li et al. [40] reported that the satisfaction of psychological needs is negatively associated with stress and anxiety.

The present study showed that the GH in half of the older adults was poor. One of the reasons for the increase in GH disorders could be aging, which was also reported in the present study. According to Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development and Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional theory of stress and coping, significant differences in stressors are found at different ages [41, 42]. In the study of Luo et al. [43], the deterioration of the quality of life of the older adults related to health (physical and mental) is partly related to the biological weakness caused by their aging. To reduce the possible quality of mental life of the older adults, which may complicate health, prevention, and care of chronic illness and other illnesses, interventions should be made for high-risk individuals, including middle-aged people, before reaching old age.

In the present study, the total score of BPNs predicted the GH of older adults. Kouros et al. [44] reported that higher levels of autonomy predict lower levels of symptoms of failure and social anxiety among male helicopter parenting. Also, the results of the study by Ng et al. [45] showed that BPNs predict moderate to strong levels of patient well-being Including better mental health and higher levels of health behaviors (physical activity and consumption of prescription drugs) that are related to physical health and longevity.

Income inequality in a society is a determining factor in population health and there is an argument that socio-economic conditions affect health through psychosocial health [46]. According to the present study, income is another factor that has affected the GH of older adults. Also, income satisfaction is also determined as a strong predictor of GH. So people with GH disorders are not satisfied with their income. Studies in high-income countries have shown that improvements in MH and well-being are achieved after retirement (due to good payment) [47, 48]. Boutayeb et al. [49] also reported that there was a relationship between low income and unemployment with the prevalence of several diseases. There is a close relationship between job loss and symptoms of common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety [50]. The study also showed that the older adults with high BPNs had higher income satisfaction. Di Domenico et al. [51] reported that there was a relationship between higher levels of income inequality and lower levels of estimation of BPNs.

In the present study, the older adults living with families had good GH, but a significant number also reported GH disorders. The older adults who lived with their family but had a GH disorder which could be due to some reasons. Their spouse may have died, they may be living with their children, and they may not have a source of income and their responsibility is with those who they live with, or they have physical and mental problems and it is difficult to keep them at home, which can cause problems for the older adults at home. This issue requires further research. In the study by Drageset et al. [52] and Tiong et al. [53], the home loss was one of the factors that had an adverse effect on the MH of the older adults in nursing homes. The results of these studies are not in line with the present study, which might be due to the fact that these studies included both genders in their study, while in the present study, only male older adults participated. It is possible that the men in this study had GH disorders due to low BPNs and a lack of independence and competence in their families.

Some studies have reported the risks of a wide range of MH-related consequences with high temperatures [54]. The present study showed that the older adults living in warmer climates had more GH disorders than those living in temperate regions. Also in the present study, it was reported that weather is a predictor of GH. In the study by Li et al. [55], it was reported that by increasing temperature, hospitalization in the emergency department due to anxiety, depression, and mental disorders increased. Gao et al. [56] stated that personal characteristics and contextual factors, such as age, gender, socio-economic factors, and ambient temperature lead to greater vulnerability in individuals.

As shown in the present study, the older adults who lived in war zones had GH disorders and war is a predictor of GH. Children who spent their childhood during the war had a reduced ability to regulate stress and fear responses at later ages, thus increasing their risk of developing mental and behavioral disorders in adulthood [57]. The study by Newnham et al. [58] also reported that psychological trauma increases for populations remaining in the post-war environment.

Accordingly, implementing strategies, such as developing health policies, creating health support environments, strengthening community action, developing individual skills, and nationwide reviewing of health care services providers, are likely to have a significant impact on reducing MH inequalities. There will be the greatest potential for achieving a healthy population, which includes reducing poverty, lifelong social support, reducing inequality, preventing war and conflict, and promoting access to employment.

Limitations

This study had several limitations. First, this study examined the BPNs and GH as a total score. In order to better understand which BPNs affect the GH of the older adults, income satisfaction, and war experience, it is required to separately examine the relationship of each of the subscales of this need with other variables. Another limitation was that this study was a correlational study and could not infer causal results from it, since each of the variables could have a causal effect on the other or there might be a third variable that has a causal effect on the two variables. In future studies, it is suggested that experimental or longitudinal studies be conducted on the effectiveness of satisfying psychological needs on the GH of the older adults, which can show the causal relationship between the two variables. Moreover, stronger statistical methods, such as structural equation modeling, can be used to show the multivariate relationship between different variables related to GH and psychological needs and other variables.

Conclusion

The present study aimed to find factors related to the GH of the older adults. The results indicated that BPNs are related to GH and the more limited and obstructed the satisfaction of BPNs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), the more the GH of the elderly decreases. Due to the war experience, unemployment, economic and social problems while living in a border town, such as Sarpol-e Zahab (Kermanshah), the older adults are less able to experience the satisfaction of BPNs and as a result, have less MH. The findings of this study can also provide a way to conduct research in this area playing an important role in promoting the health of the older adults. The self-determination theory provides a good framework for psychological and social issues. Most importantly, the results of the present study may have important implications for designing effective interventions.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Abbreviations

BPNs:

Basic Psychological Needs

GH:

General Health

MH:

Mental Health

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO clinical consortium on healthy ageing: topic focus: frailty and intrinsic capacity: report of consortium meeting, 1–2 December 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

  2. Statistical Center of Iran. [General population and housing census Iran (Persian)]. 2013. Available from: http://www.amar.org.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1191. [cited 5 Nov 2013].

    Google Scholar 

  3. Burden of Disease. Our world data. 2016. Accessed: 12 March 2020: https://ourworldindata.org/burden-of-disease.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Akishita M, Ishii S, Kojima T, Kozaki K, Kuzuya M, Arai H, et al. Priorities of health care outcomes for the elderly. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013;14(7):479–84.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Yang G, Wang Y, Zeng Y, Gao GF, Liang X, Zhou M, et al. Rapid health transition in China, 1990–2010: findings from the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet. 2013;381(9882):1987–2015.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Age U. Healthy ageing evidence review. London: Age UK; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Age U, England N. A practical guide to healthy ageing. NHS England; 2015.

  8. Xiang P, Ağbuğa B, Liu J, McBride RE. Relatedness need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and engagement in secondary school physical education. J Teach Phys Educ. 2017;36(3):340–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Pouy S, Peikani FA, Nourmohammadi H, Sanei P, Tarjoman A, Borji M. Investigating the effect of mindfulness-based training on psychological status and quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018;19(7):1993.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Santini ZI, Jose PE, Cornwell EY, Koyanagi A, Nielsen L, Hinrichsen C, et al. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans (NSHAP): a longitudinal mediation analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5(1):e62–70.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Zarandi A, Lalansofla FA, Ramezani V. The role of self-knowledge, psychological basic needs and social support in application for cosmetic surgery. J Psychol. 2012;15(4):369–81.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Deci EL, Ryan RM. Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester: The University of Rochester Press; 2004. p. 3–33.

  13. Janssen S, van Vuuren M, de Jong MD. Identifying support functions in developmental relationships: a self-determination perspective. J Vocat Behav. 2013;82(1):20–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. World Health Organization. Active ageing: a policy framework. Geneva: WHO; 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Tomioka K, Kurumatani N, Hosoi H. Association between social participation and 3-year change in instrumental activities of daily living in community-dwelling elderly adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(1):107–13.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Tomioka K, Kurumatani N, Hosoi H. Social participation and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults: a community-based longitudinal study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018;73(5):799–806.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Umberson D, Karas Montez J. Social relationships and health: a flashpoint for health policy. J Health Soc Behav. 2010;51(1_suppl):S54–66.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tomioka K, Kurumatani N, Hosoi H. Relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life with mortality, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling elderly adults. J Epidemiol. 2016;26(7):361–70.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, Beekman A, Brayne C, Huisman M. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2015;78(1):25–33.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory. Basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. New York: Guilford Press; 2017.

  21. Power C, Greene E, Lawlor B. Depression in late life. Etiology, presentation, and management. Mental health illness of the elderly mental health illness worldwide. Singapur: Springer; 2017. p. 187–218.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ghaderi S, Sahaf R, Mohammadi Shahbalaghi F, Ansari G, Gharanjic A, Ashrafi K, et al. Prevalence of depression in elderly Kurdish community residing in Boukan, Iran. Iran J Ageing. 2012;7(1):57–66.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Hassan G, Ventevogel P, Jefee-Bahloul H, Barkil-Oteo A, Kirmayer LJ. Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Syrians affected by armed conflict. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2016;25(2):129–41.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Balbus J, Crimmins A, Gamble J, Easterling D, Kunkel K, Saha S, et al. Climate change and human health. He impacts of climate change on human health in the United States: a scientific assessment; 2016. p. 25–42.

    Google Scholar 

  25. DEFRA A. Green future: our 25 year plan to improve the environment. London: U K Department for Environment. Food Rural Affairs; 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Berry HL, Bowen K, Kjellstrom T. Climate change and mental health: a causal pathways framework. Int J Public Health. 2010;55(2):123–32.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Salimi E, Dasht Bozorgi B, Mozafari M, Tabesh H. Investigating mental health status and life satisfaction of retired elderly referred to retirement’s centers of the Jundishapur University of medical sciences and shahid Chamran University in Ahvaz. J Geriatr Nurs. 2014;1(1):20–31.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Etemadi A, Ahmadi K. The survey of concerns and psychological disorders in elderly sanatorium. J Inflam Dis. 2010;14(1):71–7.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Mortazavi SS, Mohammad K, Ardebili HE, Beni RD, Mahmoodi M, Keshteli AH. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3(Suppl1):S64.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  30. Ausín B, Muñoz M, Santos-Olmo AB, Pérez-Santos E, Castellanos MA. Prevalence of mental disorders in the elderly in the community of Madrid: results of the Mentdis_ICF65+ study. Span J Psychol. 2017;20:E6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Andreas S, Schulz H, Volkert J, Lüdemann J, Dehoust M, Sehner S, et al. Incidence and risk factors of mental disorders in the elderly: the European MentDis_ICF65+ study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2021;56(5):551–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/00048674211025711.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Ferrand C, Martinent G, Durmaz N. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective. J Aging Stud. 2014;30:104–11.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Souesme G, Martinent G, Ferrand CJAog, geriatrics. Perceived autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, depressive symptoms and apathy in French hospitalized older people. Arch Ferontol Geriatr. 2016;65:70–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Roh YS, Lee WS, Chung HS, Park YM. The effects of simulation-based resuscitation training on nurses' self-efficacy and satisfaction. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(2):123–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Besharat MA. The basic needs satisfaction in general scale: reliability, validity, and factorial analysis. Q Educ Meas. 2013;4(14):147–68.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Tajrishi KZ, Besharat MA, Pourbohlool S, Larijani R. Psychometric properties of a Farsi version of the basic needs satisfaction in general scale in a sample of Iranian population. Proc Soc Behav Sci. 2011;30:221–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Eskandari A. Relationship between satisfying basic psychological needs and quality of life in the elderly in Isfahan. J Res Behav Sci. 2021;19(1):0.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Behzadnia B, Deci EL, DeHaan CR. Predicting relations among life goals, physical activity, health, and well-being in elderly adults: a self-determination theory perspective on healthy aging.  Self-determination theory and healthy aging: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.; 2020. p. 47–71.

  39. Okun ML, Mancuso RA, Hobel CJ, Schetter CD, Coussons-Read M. Poor sleep quality increases symptoms of depression and anxiety in postpartum women. J Behav Med. 2018;41(5):703–10.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Li C, Ivarsson A, Lam LT, Sun J. Basic psychological needs satisfaction and frustration, stress, and sports injury among university athletes: a four-wave prospective survey. Front Psychol. 2019;10:665.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Erikson E. The life cycle completed. A review. New York & London: W. Norton & Comp.(1980)[1946]“Ego Development and Historical Change”; 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Folkman S, Lazarus RS. An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. J Health Soc Behav. 1980;21:219–39.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Luo Y, Xu J, Granberg E, Wentworth WM. A longitudinal study of social status, perceived discrimination, and physical and emotional health among older adults. Res Aging. 2012;34(3):275–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kouros CD, Pruitt MM, Ekas NV, Kiriaki R, Sunderland M. Helicopter parenting, autonomy support, and college students’ mental health and well-being: the moderating role of sex and ethnicity. J Child Fam Stud. 2017;26(3):939–49.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Ng JY, Ntoumanis N, Thøgersen-Ntoumani C, Deci EL, Ryan RM, Duda JL, et al. Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: a meta-analysis. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2012;7(4):325–40.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Tuters S. Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K.(2009). The Spirit level: why more equal societies almost always do better. London: Allen Lane. Taylor & Francis; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gayman MD, Pai M, Kail BL, Taylor MG. Reciprocity between depressive symptoms and physical limitations pre-and postretirement: exploring racial differences. J Aging Health. 2013;25(4):555–73.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Latif E. The impact of retirement on psychological well-being in Canada. J Socio-Econ. 2011;40(4):373–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S, Boutayeb W. Multi-morbidity of non communicable diseases and equity in WHO eastern Mediterranean countries. Int J Equity Health. 2013;12(1):1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. IHE U. The impact of the economic downturn and policy changes on health inequalities in London. London: UCL IHE; 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Di Domenico SI, Fournier MA. Socioeconomic status, income inequality, and health complaints: a basic psychological needs perspective. Soc Indic Res. 2014;119(3):1679–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Drageset J, Dysvik E, Espehaug B, Natvig GK, Furnes B. Suffering and mental health among older people living in nursing homes—a mixed-methods study. PeerJ. 2015;3:e1120.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Tiong WW, Yap P, Huat Koh GC, Phoon Fong N, Luo N. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in the elderly nursing home residents in Singapore. Aging Ment Health. 2013;17(6):724–31.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Mullins JT, White C. Temperature and mental health: evidence from the spectrum of mental health outcomes. J Health Econ. 2019;68:102240.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Li H, Zhang S, Qian ZM, Xie X-H, Luo Y, Han R, et al. Short-term effects of air pollution on cause-specific mental disorders in three subtropical Chinese cities. Environ Res. 2020;191:110214.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Gao J, Cheng Q, Duan J, Xu Z, Bai L, Zhang Y, et al. Ambient temperature, sunlight duration, and suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Total Environ. 2019;646:1021–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Boyce WT. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatr Dent. 2014;36(2):102–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Newnham EA, Pearson RM, Stein A, Betancourt TS. Youth mental health after civil war: the importance of daily stressors. Br J Psychiatry. 2015;206(2):116–21.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research team would like to thank the School of Health and Safety of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences for supporting this study and all older adult’s participants in this study.

Funding

This study is funded by a research grant from the School of Health and Safety of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. The funding body (SBMU) didn’t have any role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

HVM, TM and AAP designed the study, performed data analysis, and interpretation, and prepared the manuscript. TM, SY and JSH designed the study, conducted a literature search, and interpreted of findings in the drafted manuscript. AR participated in the design of the study, assisted and revised the draft manuscript. SY participated in the design of the study, assisted and revised the draft manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tayebeh Marashi.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study was reviewed and approved by the School of Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (code IR.SBMU.PHNS.REC.1395.79). All these methods followed relevant guidelines, literature review, and regulations approved by the School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to taking part in this study.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors express that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

vismoradi ‑Aineh, H., Alipour, A., Ramezankhani, A. et al. Investigating the relationship between satisfaction of basic psychological needs, general health, and some background variables in the Iranian older adults: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 22, 372 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-03979-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-03979-z

Keywords

  • Psychological needs
  • Mental health
  • Older adults
  • Autonomy
  • Competence