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Erratum: Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Alex Baldacchino1Email author,
  • Kathleen Arbuckle2,
  • Dennis J Petrie3 and
  • Colin McCowan4
BMC Psychiatry201515:134

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0438-5

Received: 17 November 2014

Accepted: 19 December 2014

Published: 25 June 2015

The original article was published in BMC Psychiatry 2014 14:104

Correction

After publication of this work [1] we became aware that during our entry of raw data into the Complementary Meta-Analysis (CMA) programme we transposed one of the columns of data. This meant that the values generated by all of the meta-analysis and results produced in the published manuscript including those displayed Figures two to seven (Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 here) and Table four (Table 1 here) were incorrect. We subsequently repeated the meta-analysis and updated the Figures, Table and manuscript to reflect the new results following this re-analysis.
Figure 1

COGNITION: Opioid exposed infants compared to non-opioid exposed infants.

Figure 2

PSYCHOMOTOR: Opioid exposed infants compared to non-opioid exposed infants.

Figure 3

BEHAVIOR: Opioid exposed infants compared to non-opioid exposed infants.

Figure 4

COGNITION: Opioid exposed compared to non-opioid exposed preschool children.

Figure 5

PSYCHOMOTOR: Opioid exposed compared to non-opioid exposed preschool children.

Figure 6

BEHAVIOR: Opioid exposed compared to non-opioid exposed preschool children.

Table 1

Effect sizes and associated statistics for neurobehavioral domains in intrauterine opioid exposed infants and preschool children compared to others who have no history of intrauterine opioid exposure during pregnancy

Neuropsychological domains*

Studies¹

Effect size²

SE ³

N 4

Lower limit 5

Upper limit 6

Q 7

p f or Q 8

Z 9

p for Z 10

11

Fail safe N 12

INFANTS

            

Cognition

4

0.23

0.09

251

0.05

0.41

2.97

0.56

2.54

0.01

0.00

4

Psychomotor

4

0.43

0.09

251

0.25

0.60

5.36

0.25

4.65

0.00

25.41

25

Behavior

3

0.44

0.12

145

0.20

0.67

1.59

0.45

3.68

0.00

0.00

8

PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

            

Cognition

3

0.33

0.15

224

0.03

0.63

2.19

0.53

2.18

0.03

0.00

0

Psychomotor

3

0.58

0.15

224

0.28

0.88

6.36

0.09

3.78

0.00

52.84

31

Behavior*1

2

1.31

0.33

160

0.67

1.95

5.96

0.02

3.99

0.00

83.21

np

1= Number of studies used to calculate effect size, 2= Cohen’s d effect size, 3= Standard Error, 4=Total number of subjects in opioid exposed cohort ,5= Lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the effect size,6= Upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the effect size, 7= Q statistic: A test of homogeneity, 8= Probability that Q statistics significantly diff than 0, 9= One sample Z Statistic, 10= Probability that Z Statistics, is significantly diff than 0, 11= I² statistics,12= Fail Safe N: a measure of publication bias, n/p= not possible since one needs more than 2 studies to perform this analysis, * All neuropsychological domains had fixed effects model employed except *1 where a random effect model was employed.

The new conclusions of the paper show significant impairments, at a significance level of p < 0.05, for cognitive, psychomotor and observed behavioral outcomes for chronic intrauterine opioid exposed infants and/or preschool children compared to non-opioid exposed infants and children. This is in contrast to a non significant trend to poorer outcomes for chronic intrauterine opioid exposed infants and/or preschool children that we originally reported.

We regret any inconvenience that this inaccuracy in the data presented in the original manuscript might have caused. We wish to thank Dr Egil Nygaard for bringing this matter to our attention.

Notes

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Division of Neuroscience, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School
(2)
Division of Population Health Science, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School
(3)
Centre for Health Policy, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne
(4)
Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow

Reference

  1. Baldacchino A, Arbuckle K, Petrie DJ, McCowan C. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:104.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Baldacchino et al. 2015

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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