American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child. 1943;2(3):217–50.
Bolton P, Macdonald H, Pickles A, Rios P, Goode S, Crowson M, et al. A case-control family history study of autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1994;35(5):877–900.
Charman T, Young GS, Brian J, Carter A, Carver LJ, Chawarska K, et al. Non-ASD outcomes at 36 months in siblings at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a baby siblings research consortium (BSRC) study. Autism Res. 2017;10(1):169–78.
Constantino JN, Todd RD. Autistic traits in the general population: a twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(5):524–30.
Kamio Y, Inada N, Moriwaki A, Kuroda M, Koyama T, Tsujii H, et al. Quantitative autistic traits ascertained in a national survey of 22 529 Japanese schoolchildren. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013;128(1):45–53.
Lundström S, Chang Z, Kerekes N, Gumpert CH, Rastam M, Gillberg C, et al. Autistic-like traits and their association with mental health problems in two nationwide twin cohorts of children and adults. Psychol Med. 2011;41(11):2423–33.
Ronald A, Happe F, Price TS, Baron-Cohen S, Plomin R. Phenotypic and genetic overlap between autistic traits at the extremes of the general population. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(10):1206–14.
Lundström S, Chang Z, Råstam M, Gillberg C, Larsson H, Anckarsäter H, et al. Autism spectrum disorders and autisticlike traits: similar etiology in the extreme end and the normal variation. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(1):46–52.
Lundström S, Haworth CM, Carlström E, Gillberg C, Mill J, Råstam M, et al. Trajectories leading to autism spectrum disorders are affected by paternal age: findings from two nationally representative twin studies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(7):850–6.
Constantino JN, Charman T. Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: reconciling the syndrome, its diverse origins, and variation in expression. Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(3):279–91.
Möricke E, Swinkels SH, Beuker KT, Buitelaar JK. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19(8):659–68.
Moriwaki A, Kamio Y. Associations between autistic traits and psychiatric issues in Japanese school children and adolescents. Japanese J Autistic Spectrum. 2013;10(1):11–7 (in Japanese).
Lundström S, Reichenberg A, Melke J, Rastam M, Kerekes N, Lichtenstein P, et al. Autism spectrum disorders and coexisting disorders in a nationwide Swedish twin study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015;56(6):702–10.
Salazar F, Baird G, Chandler S, Tseng E, O'Sullivan T, Howlin P, et al. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders in preschool and elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015;45(8):2283–94.
Totsika V, Hastings RP, Emerson E, Lancaster GA, Berridge DM. A population-based investigation of behavioural and emotional problems and maternal mental health: associations with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011;52(1):91–9.
Dell'Osso L, Luche RD, Gesi C, Moroni I, Carmassi C, Maj M. From Asperger’s Autistischen Psychopathen to DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder and beyond: a subthreshold autism spectrum model. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2016;12:120–31.
Skuse DH, Mandy WP, Scourfield J. Measuring autistic traits: heritability, reliability and validity of the social and communication disorders checklist. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187:568–72.
Skuse DH, Mandy W, Steer C, Miller LL, Goodman R, Lawrence K, et al. Social communication competence and functional adaptation in a general population of children: preliminary evidence for sex-by-verbal IQ differential risk. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(2):128–37.
Pine DS, Guyer AE, Goldwin M, Towbin KA, Leibenluft E. Autism spectrum disorder scale scores in pediatric mood and anxiety disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(6):652–61.
van Steensel FJ, Bogels SM, Wood JJ. Autism spectrum traits in children with anxiety disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(2):361–70.
Dell'Osso L, Carpita B, Gesi C, Cremone IM, Corsi M, Massimetti E, et al. Subthreshold autism spectrum disorder in patients with eating disorders. Compr Psychiatry. 2018;81:66–72.
Matsuo J, Kamio Y, Takahashi H, Ota M, Teraishi T, Hori H, et al. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122711.
Hansson SL, Svanstrom Rojvall A, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H. Psychiatric telephone interview with parents for screening of childhood autism - tics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other comorbidities (A-TAC): preliminary reliability and validity. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;187(3):262–7.
Constantino JN, Gruber CP. Social responsiveness scale: SRS-2. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 2012.
Arora NK, Nair MKC, Gulati S, Deshmukh V, Mohapatra A, Mishra D, et al. Neurodevelopmental disorders in children aged 2-9 years: population-based burden estimates across five regions in India. PLoS Med. 2018;15(7):e1002615.
Kim YS, Leventhal BL, Koh YJ, Fombonne E, Laska E, Lim EC, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a total population sample. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168(9):904–12.
Dietz C, Swinkels S, van Daalen E, van Engeland H, Buitelaar JK. Screening for autistic spectrum disorder in children aged 14-15 months. II: population screening with the early screening of autistic traits questionnaire (ESAT). Design and general findings. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(6):713–22.
Swinkels SH, Dietz C, van Daalen E, Kerkhof IH, van Engeland H, Buitelaar JK. Screening for autistic spectrum in children aged 14 to 15 months. I: the development of the early screening of autistic traits questionnaire (ESAT). J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(6):723–32.
Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA. Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles, vol. 30. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research center for children, youth, & falimilies; 2000.
Pierce K, Gazestani VH, Bacon E, Barnes CC, Cha D, Nalabolu S, et al. Evaluation of the diagnostic stability of the early autism spectrum disorder phenotype in the general population starting at 12 months. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(6):578–87.
Haraguchi H, Stickley A, Saito A, Takahashi H, Kamio Y. Stability of autistic traits from 5 to 8 years of age among children in the general population. J Autism Dev Disord. 2019;49(1):324–34.
Saito A, Stickley A, Haraguchi H, Takahashi H, Ishitobi M, Kamio Y. Association between autistic traits in preschool children and later emotional/behavioral outcomes. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47(11):3333–46.
Shirama A, Stickley A, Kamio Y, Nakai A, Takahashi H, Saito A, et al. Emotional and behavioral problems in Japanese preschool children with motor coordination difficulties: the role of autistic traits. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2021;31:1–12.
Stickley A, Shirama A, Kitamura S, Kamio Y, Takahashi H, Saito A, et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and sleep problems in preschool children: the role of autistic traits. Sleep Med. 2021;83:214–21.
Kamio Y. Social responsiveness scale, second edition (SRS-2) manual. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha; 2017.
Kamio Y, Inada N, Koyama T. A nationwide survey on quality of life and associated factors of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 2013;17(1):15–26.
Moriwaki A, Koyama T, Kamio Y: Nihongoban SRS no hyoujyunka. Standardization of the Japanese version of the social responsiveness scale. In: Kamio Y, editor. Annual report of research supported by health and labor sciences research grants Tokyo: National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (in Japanese); 2011. p. 49–68.
Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson SE, Brian J, Smith IM, Roberts W, Szatmari P, et al. Stability of diagnostic assessment for autism spectrum disorder between 18 and 36 months in a high-risk cohort. Autism Res. 2016;9(7):790–800.
Frazier TW, Ratliff KR, Gruber C, Zhang Y, Law PA, Constantino JN. Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the social responsiveness scale-2. Autism. 2014;18(1):31–44.
Constantino JN, Abbacchi AM, Lavesser PD, Reed H, Givens L, Chiang L, et al. Developmental course of autistic social impairment in males. Dev Psychopathol. 2009;21(1):127–38.
Goodman R. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997;38(5):581–6.
Elberling H, Linneberg A, Olsen EM, Goodman R, Skovgaard AM. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen child cohort 2000. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19(9):725–35.
Lyons-Ruth K, Easterbrooks MA, Cibelli CD. Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Dev Psychol. 1997;33(4):681–92.
Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(11):1337–45.
Matsuishi T, Nagano M, Araki Y, Tanaka Y, Iwasaki M, Yamashita Y, et al. Scale properties of the Japanese version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): a study of infant and school children in community samples. Brain and Development. 2008;30(6):410–5.
Moriwaki A, Kamio Y. Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2014;8(1):1.
Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB. When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(8):1179–91.
Davis E, Sawyer MG, Lo SK, Priest N, Wake M. Socioeconomic risk factors for mental health problems in 4-5-year-old children: Australian population study. Acad Pediatr. 2010;10(1):41–7.
Desai S, Alva S. Maternal education and child health: is there a strong causal relationship? Demography. 1998;35(1):71–81.
Zablotsky B, Anderson C, Law P. The association between child autism symptomatology, maternal quality of life, and risk for depression. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(8):1946–55.
Goodman SH, Rouse MH, Connell AM, Broth MR, Hall CM, Heyward D. Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011;14(1):1–27.
Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, Linzer M, de Gruy FV 3rd, Hahn SR, et al. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA. 1994;272(22):1749–56.
Adachi Y, Aleksic B, Nobata R, Suzuki T, Yoshida K, Ono Y, et al. Combination use of Beck depression inventory and two-question case-finding instrument as a screening tool for depression in the workplace. BMJ Open. 2012;2(3):e000596.
Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism diagnostic interview-revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1994;24(5):659–85.
Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore P. Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS). Los Angeles: West. Psychol Serv; 2000.
Wechsler D. Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence. New York: the Psychological Corp; 1966.
Fernell E, Hedvall Å, Norrelgen F, Eriksson M, Höglund-Carlsson L, Barnevik-Olsson M, et al. Developmental profiles in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders referred for intervention. Res Dev Disabil. 2010;31(3):790–9.
Matson JL, Shoemaker M. Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30(6):1107–14.
Hyseni F, Blanken LME, Muetzel R, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H, White T. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study. Child Neuropsychol. 2019;25(3):352–69.
Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao U, Ryan N. The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; 1996.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
Magnuson KM, Constantino JN. Characterization of depression in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011;32(4):332–40.
White SW, Oswald D, Ollendick T, Scahill L. Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009;29(3):216–29.
Hallett V, Ronald A, Happe F. Investigating the association between autistic-like and internalizing traits in a community-based twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(6):618–27.
Hallett V, Ronald A, Rijsdijk F, Happe F. Association of autistic-like and internalizing traits during childhood: a longitudinal twin study. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(7):809–17.
Hallett V, Ronald A, Colvert E, Ames C, Woodhouse E, Lietz S, et al. Exploring anxiety symptoms in a large-scale twin study of children with autism spectrum disorders, their co-twins and controls. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54(11):1176–85.
Hill AP, Zuckerman KE, Hagen AD, Kriz DJ, Duvall SW, van Santen J, et al. Aggressive behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence and correlates in a large clinical sample. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2014;8(9):1121–33.
Lecavalier L, Leone S, Wiltz J. The impact of behaviour problems on caregiver stress in young people with autism spectrum disorders. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2006;50(Pt 3):172–83.
Antshel KM, Zhang-James Y, Wagner KE, Ledesma A, Faraone SV. An update on the comorbidity of ADHD and ASD: a focus on clinical management. Expert Rev Neurother. 2016;16(3):279–93.
Ronald A, Edelson LR, Asherson P, Saudino KJ. Exploring the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in early childhood: findings from a community twin study of 2-year-olds. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(2):185–96.
Hsiao MN, Tseng WL, Huang HY, Gau SS. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(1):254–65.
Wood JJ, Cowan PA, Baker BL. Behavior problems and peer rejection in preschool boys and girls. J Genet Psychol. 2002;163(1):72–88.
Christ SE, Kanne SM, Reiersen AM. Executive function in individuals with subthreshold autism traits. Neuropsychology. 2010;24(5):590–8.
Chandler S, Howlin P, Simonoff E, O'Sullivan T, Tseng E, Kennedy J, et al. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2016;58(2):202–8.
Chen YW, Tseng MH, Hu FC, Cermak SA. Psychosocial adjustment and attention in children with developmental coordination disorder using different motor tests. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30(6):1367–77.
Cummins A, Piek JP, Dyck MJ. Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005;47(7):437–42.
Wagner MO, Bos K, Jascenoka J, Jekauc D, Petermann F. Peer problems mediate the relationship between developmental coordination disorder and behavioral problems in school-aged children. Res Dev Disabil. 2012;33(6):2072–9.
Dell'Osso L, Muti D, Carpita B, Cremone I, Bui E, Gesi C, et al. The adult autism subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS) model: a neurodevelopmental approach to mental disorders. J Psychopathology. 2018;24(3):118–24.