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  1. It has been suggested that infection with Toxoplasma gondii is associated with slow reaction and poor concentration, whilst infection with Coxiella burnetii may lead to persistent symptoms of fatigue.

    Authors: Hollie V Thomas, Daniel Rh Thomas, Roland L Salmon, Glyn Lewis and Andy P Smith
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:32
  2. The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP) in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy) ...

    Authors: Mauro Giovanni Carta, Maria Carolina Hardoy, Mariangela Cadeddu, Bernardo Carpiniello, Liliana Dell'Osso, Mario Antonio Reda and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:31
  3. Several studies have now examined the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment on brain function in a variety of anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), postt...

    Authors: Paul D Carey, James Warwick, Dana JH Niehaus, Geoffrey van der Linden, Barend B van Heerden, Brian H Harvey, Soraya Seedat and Dan J Stein
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:30
  4. Depression is frequently occurring during and after psychosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if the psychosocial characteristics associated with depression/depressive symptoms in the late phase of a fir...

    Authors: Yvonne Forsell, Sonja Levander and Johan Cullberg
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:29
  5. Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Concerta and Metadate CD are once-daily formulations of MPH using different delivery mechanism...

    Authors: Edmund JS Sonuga-Barke, James M Swanson, David Coghill, Heleen H DeCory and Simon J Hatch
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:28
  6. Results obtained from brain imaging studies indicate that serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) densities are altered in major depression. However, no such studies have been published on ...

    Authors: Tommi Tolmunen, Mikko Joensuu, Pirjo Irmeli Saarinen, Hanna Mussalo, Pasi Ahola, Ritva Vanninen, Jyrki Kuikka, Jari Tiihonen and Johannes Lehtonen
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:27
  7. A mixed-effects model repeated measures approach (MMRM) was specified as the primary analysis in the Phase III clinical trials of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Analysis of co...

    Authors: Craig H Mallinckrodt, Joel Raskin, Madelaine M Wohlreich, John G Watkin and Michael J Detke
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:26
  8. To evaluate the association between mood and anxiety disorders and thyroid autoimmunity in a community sample. Methods: A community based sample of 222 subjects was examined. Psychiatric diagnoses were formula...

    Authors: Mauro Giovanni Carta, Andrea Loviselli, Maria Carolina Hardoy, Sergio Massa, Mariangela Cadeddu, Claudia Sardu, Bernardo Carpiniello, Liliana Dell'Osso and Stefano Mariotti
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:25
  9. Combining bright light exposure and physical exercise may be an effective way of relieving depressive symptoms. However, relatively little is known about individual factors predicting either a good response or...

    Authors: Sami Leppämäki, Jari Haukka, Jouko Lönnqvist and Timo Partonen
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:22
  10. The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that genes involved in glutametergic transmission are candidates for schizophrenic susceptibility genes. We have been performing systematic as...

    Authors: Xiangdong Deng, Hiroki Shibata, Hideaki Ninomiya, Nobutada Tashiro, Nakao Iwata, Norio Ozaki and Yasuyuki Fukumaki
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:21
  11. Cognitive traits derived from neuropsychological test data are considered to be potential endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Previously, these traits have been found to form a valid basis for clustering samples ...

    Authors: Fabian Hoti, Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, Jari Haukka, Timo Partonen, Lasse Holmström and Jouko Lönnqvist
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:20
  12. Current operational diagnostic systems have substantial limitations for lifetime diagnostic classification of bipolar spectrum disorders. Issues include: (1) It is difficult to operationalize the integration o...

    Authors: Nick Craddock, Ian Jones, George Kirov and Lisa Jones
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:19
  13. Polypharmacy with psychoactive drugs is an increasingly common and debatable contemporary practice in clinical psychiatry based more upon experience than evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate t...

    Authors: Carlos De las Cuevas and Emilio J Sanz
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:18
  14. Early intervention teams attempt to improve outcome in schizophrenia through earlier detection and the provision of phase-specific treatments. Whilst the number of early intervention teams is growing, there is...

    Authors: Max Marshall, Austin Lockwood, Shôn Lewis and Matthew Fiander
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:17
  15. Several studies have suggested an association between the functional Val 158 Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene and neurocognitive performance...

    Authors: Sophie Mills, Kate Langley, Marianne Van den Bree, Eddy Street, Darko Turic, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan and Anita Thapar
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:15
  16. Efficient, accurate instruments for measuring depression are increasingly important in clinical practice. We developed a computerized adaptive version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We examined its ef...

    Authors: William Gardner, Katherine Shear, Kelly J Kelleher, Kathleen A Pajer, Oommen Mammen, Daniel Buysse and Ellen Frank
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:13
  17. Since the introduction of antipsychotics, especially the so called atypicals, the treatment of schizophrenia has shown important improvements. At the present time, it is preferred to label clozapine and other ...

    Authors: Rogelio Apiquian, Ana Fresán, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Rosa-Elena Ulloa and Humberto Nicolini
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:12
  18. The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine clinical risk factors, including suicide intent and hopelessness, for suicide and risk of death from all causes after attempted suicide over a 12-year follo...

    Authors: Kirsi Suominen, Erkki Isometsä, Aini Ostamo and Jouko Lönnqvist
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:11
  19. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is an early-onset, clinically heterogenous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. The diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity dis...

    Authors: Shahin Akhondzadeh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi and Mojgan Khademi
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:9
  20. This study examined how ethnic differences in sleep and depression were related to environmental illumination and circadian rhythms.

    Authors: Daniel F Kripke, Girardin Jean-Louis, Jeffrey A Elliott, Melville R Klauber, Katharine M Rex, Arja Tuunainen and Robert D Langer
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:8
  21. It is unclear why approximately 10% of suicide completers seem to be psychiatrically normal. To better understand this issue, we studied suicide completers without an axis I diagnosis and compared them, on mea...

    Authors: Carl Ernst, Aleksandra Lalovic, Alain Lesage, Monique Seguin, Michel Tousignant and Gustavo Turecki
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:7
  22. Unipolar depression might be characterized by a 'low-thyroid function syndrome'. To our knowledge, this is the first study which explores the possible relationship of DSM-IV depressive subtypes and the medium ...

    Authors: Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Apostolos Iacovides, Philippos Grammaticos, George St Kaprinis and Per Bech
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:6
  23. Severe traumatic stressors such as war, rape, or life-threatening accidents can result in a debilitating psychopathological development conceptualised as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Pathological memo...

    Authors: Judith Glaesser, Frank Neuner, Ralph Lütgehetmann, Roger Schmidt and Thomas Elbert
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:5
  24. Concentrations of monoamine metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been used extensively as indirect estimates of monoamine turnover in the brain. CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations are partl...

    Authors: Erik G Jönsson, Jessica Bah, Jonas Melke, Rami Abou Jamra, Johannes Schumacher, Lars Westberg, Roland Ivo, Sven Cichon, Peter Propping, Markus M Nöthen, Elias Eriksson and Göran C Sedvall
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:4
  25. Epidemiological reports about dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly people from developing countries are scarce. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalences of dementia and AD in a population ...

    Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ana Berthina Hernández-Alvarado, Rosa Oralia Tapia-Rodríguez, Ángel Guerrero-Iturbe, Karina Rodríguez-Corral and Sergio Estrada Martínez
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:3
  26. Estimates of the annual prevalence for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) were consistent across the international sites range, 1.9% – 2.5%. The nine population surveys, which used Diagnostic Interview Schedu...

    Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Mehdi Rahgozar, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Haratoun Davidian, Hossein Malek Afzali, Hamid Reza Naghavi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri Yazdi, Seyed Mehdi Saberi, Bita Mesgarpour, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Javad Alaghebandrad and Mehdi Tehranidoost
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2004 4:2
  27. The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 i...

    Authors: Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Apostolos Iacovides, Soula Kleanthous, Stavros Samolis, Kyriakos Gougoulias, George St Kaprinis and Per Bech
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:21
  28. Internet-based depression communities provide a forum for individuals to communicate and share information and ideas. There has been little research into the health status and other characteristics of users of...

    Authors: John Powell, Noel McCarthy and Gunther Eysenbach
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:19
  29. The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizo...

    Authors: Carina Moll, Ursula Gessler, Stephanie Bartsch, Hany George El-sayeh, Mark Fenton and Clive Elliott Adams
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:18
  30. Despite of an increasing body of research the associations between vitamin B12 and folate levels and the treatment outcome in depressive disorders are still unsolved. We therefore conducted this naturalistic pros...

    Authors: Jukka Hintikka, Tommi Tolmunen, Antti Tanskanen and Heimo Viinamäki
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:17
  31. Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Reza Radgoodarzi and Seyed Ali Ahmadi-Abhari
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:16
  32. Hypercortisolism as a sign of hypothamamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis overactivity and sleep EEG changes are frequently observed in depression. Closely related to the HPA axis is the renin-angiotensin...

    Authors: Harald Murck, Katja Held, Marc Ziegenbein, Heike Künzel, Kathrin Koch and Axel Steiger
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:15
  33. Morning light exposure administered as simulated dawn looks a promising method to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder, but it may moreover help with resetting the inaccurate organisation of body clock functions ...

    Authors: Sami Leppämäki, Ybe Meesters, Jari Haukka, Jouko Lönnqvist and Timo Partonen
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:14
  34. Several lines of evidence have supported possible roles of the sigma receptors in the etiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of antipsychotic efficacy. An association study provided genetic evidence that the...

    Authors: Naohiko Uchida, Hiroshi Ujike, Kenji Nakata, Manabu Takaki, Akira Nomura, Takeshi Katsu, Yuji Tanaka, Takaki Imamura, Ayumu Sakai and Shigetoshi Kuroda
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:13
  35. Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while ther...

    Authors: Pekka Tani, Nina Lindberg, Taina Nieminen-von Wendt, Lennart von Wendt, Lauri Alanko, Björn Appelberg and Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:12
  36. Previous studies show that both the categorical and dimensional descriptors of personality disorders are correlated with normal personality traits. Recently, a 92-item inventory, the Parker Personality Measure...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Lan Hu, Ling Mu, Dahong Chen, Qi Song, Mengping Zhou, Weijuan Zhang, Jun Hou, Zhigang Li, Jun Wang, Jianhui Liu and Chengsen He
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:11
  37. Neurocognitive impairment is frequently described in a number of psychiatric disorders and may be a direct consequence of serotonergic dysfunction. As impairments in executive functions are some of the most fr...

    Authors: Peter Gallagher, Anna E Massey, Allan H Young and R Hamish McAllister-Williams
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:10
  38. Prospective memory (PM), the act of remembering that something has to be done in the future without any explicit prompting to recall, provides a useful framework with which to examine problems in internal-sour...

    Authors: Brita Elvevåg, Elizabeth A Maylor and Abigail L Gilbert
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:9
  39. Bipolar disorder is a lifelong episodic condition characterized by mood swings between mania and depression. Several lines of evidence suggest that serotonin is likely to play a pivotal role in the pathophysio...

    Authors: Shahin Akhondzadeh, Hassan Mohajari, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi and Homayoun Amini
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:7
  40. We aimed at studying the seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, the distribution of hospital admissions by season, and the persistence of the circadian type in twins with bipolar disorder and their healthy co...

    Authors: Reeta Hakkarainen, Carolina Johansson, Tuula Kieseppä, Timo Partonen, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaakko Kaprio and Jouko Lönnqvist
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:6
  41. Low levels of light exposure at critical times are thought to cause seasonal affective disorder. Investigators, in studies demonstrating the usefulness of bright light therapy, also have implicated light's rol...

    Authors: Emily J Wang, Daniel F Kripke, Martin T Stein and Barbara L Parry
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:5
  42. Lithium-induced thyroid abnormalities have been documented in many studies. They may occur despite normal plasma lithium levels. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine possible relationship between...

    Authors: Seyed-Ali Ahmadi-Abhari, Padideh Ghaeli, Fanak Fahimi, Fatemeh Esfahanian, Hasan Farsam, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Issa Jahanzad, Zinat-Nadya Hatmi and Simin Dashti
    Citation: BMC Psychiatry 2003 3:4

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